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Investing amplifier practical sailor

Crypto trader tv 23.06.2022

investing amplifier practical sailor

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A vehicle door can be opened to provide access to the opening, or closed to secure it. These doors can be opened manually, or powered electronically. Powered doors are usually found on minivans, high-end cars, or modified cars. Car glass includes windscreens, side and rear windows, and glass panel roofs on a vehicle. Side windows can be either fixed or be raised and lowered by depressing a button power window or switch or using a hand-turned crank.

The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signaling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases, the top of a motor vehicle. This lights the roadway for the driver and increases the conspicuity of the vehicle, allowing other drivers and pedestrians to see a vehicle's presence, position, size, direction of travel, and the driver's intentions regarding direction and speed of travel.

Emergency vehicles usually carry distinctive lighting equipment to warn drivers and indicate priority of movement in traffic. A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead. A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a manmade object in its construction and use. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame on which the body is mounted. Autonomous car. An autonomous car also known as a driverless car, self- driving car, or robotic car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.

Autonomous cars use a variety of techniques to detect their surroundings, such as radar, laser light, GPS, odometry, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Autonomous cars have control systems that are capable of analyzing sensory data to distinguish between different cars on the road, which is very useful in planning a path to the desired destination.

Among the potential benefits of autonomous cars is a significant reduction in traffic collisions; the resulting injuries; and related costs, including a lower need for insurance. Autonomous cars are also predicted to offer major increases in traffic flow; enhanced mobility for children, the elderly, disabled and poor people; the relief of travelers from driving and navigation chores; lower fuel consumption; significantly reduced needs for parking space in cities; a reduction in crime; and the facilitation of different business models for mobility as a service, especially those involved in the sharing economy.

Modern self-driving cars generally use Bayesian Simultaneous Localization And Mapping SLAM algoritlims, which fuse data from multiple sensors and an off-line map into current location estimates and map updates. Visual object recognition uses machine vision including neural networks.

The term 'Dynamic driving task' includes the operational steering, braking, accelerating, monitoring the vehicle and roadway and tactical responding to events, determining when to change lanes, turn, use signals, etc. The term 'Driving mode' refers to a type of driving scenario with characteristic dynamic driving task requirements e. The SAE International standard J, entitled: Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems" [Revised 09], which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein, describes six different levels ranging from none to fully automated systems , based on the amount of driver intervention and attentiveness required, rather than the vehicle capabilities.

The levels are further described in a table 40 in FIG. Level 0 refers to automated system issues warnings but has no vehicle control, while Level 1 also referred to as "hands on" refers to driver and automated system that shares control over the vehicle. An example would be Adaptive Cruise Control ACC where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls speed.

Using Parking Assistance, steering is automated while speed is manual. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. In Level 2 also referred to as "hands off' , the automated system takes full control of the vehicle accelerating, braking, and steering. The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to immediately intervene at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. In Level 3 also referred to as' eyes off , the driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.

The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be prepared to intervene within some limited time, specified by the manufacturer, when called upon by the vehicle to do so. A key distinction is between level 2, where the human driver performs part of the dynamic driving task, and level 3, where the automated driving system performs the entire dynamic driving task.

Level 4 also referred to as "mind off is similar to level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, i. Self-driving is supported only in limited areas geofenced or under special circumstances, such as traffic jams. Outside of these areas or circumstances, the vehicle must be able to safely abort the trip, i. In Level 5 also referred to as "wheel optional" , no human intervention is required. An example would be a robotic taxi. An autonomous vehicle and systems having an interface for payloads that allows integration of various payloads with relative ease are disclosed in U.

Patent Application Publication No. There is a vehicle control system for controlling an autonomous vehicle, receiving data, and transmitting a control signal on at least one network. A payload is adapted to detachably connect to the autonomous vehicle, the payload comprising a network interface configured to receive the control signal from the vehicle control system over the at least one network.

The vehicle control system may encapsulate payload data and transmit the payload data over the at least one network, including Ethernet or CAN networks. The payload may be a laser scanner, a radio, a chemical detection system, or a Global Positioning System unit.

In certain embodiments, the payload is a camera mast unit, where the camera communicates with the autonomous vehicle control system to detect and avoid obstacles. The camera mast unit may be interchangeable, and may include structures for receiving additional payload components. Automotive electronics. Automotive electronics involves any electrically- generated systems used in vehicles, such as ground vehicles. Automotive electronics or automotive embedded systems are distributed systems, and according to different domains in the automotive field, they can be classified into Engine electronics, Transmission electronics, Chassis electronics, Active safety, Driver assistance, Passenger comfort, and Entertainment or infotainment systems.

One of the most demanding electronic parts of an automobile is the Engine Control Unit. Engine controls demand one of the highest real time deadlines, as the engine itself is a very fast and complex part of the automobile. The computing power of the engine control unit is commonly the highest, typically a bit processor, that typically controls in real-time in a diesel engine the Fuel injection rate, Emission control, NOx control, Regeneration of oxidation catalytic converter, Turbocharger control, Throttle control, and Cooling system control.

In a gasoline engine, the engine control typically involves Lambda control. An engine ECU typically connects to, or includes, sensors that actively monitor in real-time engine parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow, engine speed, oxygen level and NOx level, plus other parameters at different points within the engine. All these sensor signals are analyzed by the ECU, which has the logic circuits to do the actual controlling.

The ECU output is commonly connected to different actuators for the throttle valve, EGR valve, rack in VGTs , fuel injector using a pulse-width modulated signal , dosing injector, and more. Transmission electronics involves control of the transmission system, mainly the shifting of the gears for better shift comfort and to lower torque interrupt while shifting. Automatic transmissions use controls for their operation, and many semi-automatic transmissions having a fully automatic clutch or a semi-auto clutch declutching only.

The engine control unit and the transmission control typically exchange messages, sensor signals and control signals for their operation. Active safety systems involve modules that are ready-to-act when there is a collision in progress, or used to prevent it when it senses a dangerous situation, such as Air bags, Hill descent control, and Emergency brake assist system.

Passenger comfort systems involve, for example, Automatic climate control, Electronic seat adjustment with memory, Automatic wipers, Automatic headlamps - adjusts beam automatically, and Automatic cooling - temperature adjustment. Infotainment systems include systems such as Navigation system, Vehicle audio, and Information access.

Automotive electric and electronic technologies and systems are described in a book published by Robert Bosch GmbH 5 th Edition, July entitled: "Bosch Automotive Electric and Automotive Electronics [ISBN - ], which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein.

Safety features are designed to avoid collisions and accidents by offering technologies that alert the driver to potential problems, or to avoid collisions by implementing safeguards and taking over control of the vehicle.

There are many forms of ADAS available; some features are built into cars or are available as an add-on package. School of Engineering. Applied Mathematics and Computing Group, entitled:. Autonomous cruise control ACC; also referred to as 'adaptive cruise control' or 'radar cruise control' is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. It makes no use of satellite or roadside infrastructures or of any cooperative support from other vehicles.

The vehicle control is imposed based on sensor information from on-board sensors only. Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control CACC further extends the automation of navigation by using information gathered from fixed infrastructure such as satellites and roadside beacons, or mobile infrastructure such as reflectors or transmitters on the back of other vehicles.

These systems use either a radar or laser sensor setup allowing the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle ahead and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows. ACC technology is widely regarded as a key component of any future generations of intelligent cars.

The impact is equally on driver safety as on economizing capacity of roads by adjusting the distance between vehicles according to the conditions. In certain cars it is incorporated with a lane maintaining system which provides power steering assist to reduce steering input burden in corners when the cruise control system is activated. Adaptive High Beam. Adaptive High Beam Assist is Mercedes-Benz' marketing name for a headlight control strategy that continuously automatically tailors the headlamp range so the beam just reaches other vehicles ahead, thus always ensuring maximum possible seeing range without glaring other road users.

It provides a continuous range of beam reach from a low-aimed low beam to a high-aimed high beam, rather than the traditional binary choice between low and high beams. The range of the beam can vary between 65 and meters, depending on traffic conditions.

In traffic, the low beam cutoff position is adjusted vertically to maximize seeing range while keeping glare out of leading and oncoming drivers' eyes. When no traffic is close enough for glare to be a problem, the system provides full high beam.

Headlamps are adjusted every 40 milliseconds by a camera on the inside of the front windscreen which can determine distance to other vehicles. The adaptive high beam may be realized with LED headlamps. Automatic parking. Automatic parking is an autonomous car-maneuvering system that moves a vehicle from a traffic lane into a parking spot to perform parallel, perpendicular or angle parking.

The automatic parking system aims to enhance the comfort and safety of driving in constrained environments where much attention and experience is required to steer the car. The parking maneuver is achieved by means of coordinated control of the steering angle and speed, which takes into account the actual situation in the environment to ensure collision-free motion within the available space. The car is an example of a non-holonomic system where the number of control commands available is less than the number of coordinates that represent its position and orientation.

Automotive night vision. An automotive night vision system uses a thermographic camera to increase a driver's perception and seeing distance in darkness or poor weather beyond the reach of the vehicle's headlights. Active systems use an infrared light source built into the car to illuminate the road ahead with light that is invisible to humans.

There are two kinds of active systems: gated and non-gated. The gated system uses a pulsed light source and a synchronized camera that enable long ranges m and high performance in rain and snow. Passive infrared systems do not use an infrared light source, instead they capture thermal radiation already emitted by the objects, using a thermographic camera.

Blind spot monitor. The blind spot monitor is a vehicle-based sensor device that detects other vehicles located to the driver ' s side and rear. Warnings can be visual, audible, vibrating or tactile. Blind spot monitors may include more than monitoring the sides of the vehicle, such as 'Cross Traffic Alert', which alerts drivers backing out of a parking space when traffic is approaching from the sides.

BLIS is an acronym for Blind Spot Information System, a system of protection developed by Volvo, and produced a visible alert when a car entered the blind spot while a driver was switching lanes, using two door mounted lenses to check the blind spot area for an impending collision.

Collision avoidance system. A collision avoidance system a. Precrash system is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of an accident. Such forward collision warning system or collision mitigating system typically uses radar all-weather and sometimes laser and camera both sensor types are ineffective during bad weather to detect an imminent crash.

Once the detection is done, these systems either provide a warning to the driver when there is an imminent collision or take action autonomously without any driver input by braking or steering or both. Collision avoidance by braking is appropriate at low vehicle speeds e. Cars with collision avoidance may also be equipped with adaptive cruise control, and use the same forward-looking sensors. Intersection assistant. Intersection assistant is an advanced driver assistance system for city junctions that are a major accident blackspot.

The collisions here can mostly be put down to driver distraction or mis-judgement. While humans often react too slowly, assistance systems are immune to that brief moment of shock. If this anticipatory system detects a hazardous situation of this type, it prompts the driver to start emergency braking by activating visual and acoustic warnings and automatically engaging brakes. Lane Departure Warning system. A lane departure warning system is a mechanism designed to warn the driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane unless a turn signal is on in that direction on freeways and arterial roads.

These systems are designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: driver error, distractions, and drowsiness. The Advanced Driver Assistance System Interface Specification ADASIS forum was established in May by a group of car manufacturers, in- vehicle system developers and map data companies with the primary goal of developing a standardized map data interface between stored map data and ADAS applications.

Main objectives of the ADASIS Forum are to define an open standardized data model and structure to represent map data in the vicinity of the vehicle position i. Using ADASIS, the available map data may not only be used for routing purposes but also to enable advanced in-vehicle applications. The area of potential features reaches from headlight control up to active safety applications ADAS.

Built-in vehicle sensors may be used to capture the vehicle's environment are limited to a relatively short range. However, the available digital map data can be used as a virtual sensor to look more forward on the path of the vehicle. The digital map contains attributes attached to the road segments, such as road geometry, functional road class, number of lanes, speed limits, traffic signs, etc.

For each street segment, the probability of driving through this segment is assigned and given by the ADASIS protocol. In automotive electronics, an Electronic Control Unit ECU is a generic term for any embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical system or subsystems in a vehicle such as a motor vehicle. An ECU is power fed by a supply voltage, and includes or connects to sensors using analog and digital inputs. In addition to a communication interface, an ECU typically includes a relay, H-Bridge, injector, or logic drivers, or outputs for connecting to various actuators.

ECU technology and applications is described in the M. Project first stage report EE by Vineet P. ECU examples are described in a brochure by Sensor- Technik Wiedemann Gmbh headquartered in Kaufbeuren, Germany dated GB entitled "Control System Electronics", which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein. OSEK was designed to provide a standard software architecture for the various electronic control units ECUs throughout a car.

OSEK systems are expected to run on chips without memory protection. Features of an OSEK implementation can be usually configured at compile-time. The number of application tasks, stacks, mutexes, etc. Basic tasks never block; they "run to completion" coroutine. Enhanced tasks can sleep and block on event objects. The events can be triggered by other tasks basic and enhanced or interrupt routines. Deadlocks and priority inversion are prevented by priority ceiling i.

It pursues the objective of creating and establishing an open and standardized software architecture for automotive electronic control units excluding infotainment. Goals include the scalability to different vehicle and platform variants, transferability of software, the consideration of availability and safety requirements, a collaboration between various partners, sustainable utilization of natural resources, maintainability throughout the whole "Product Life Cycle".

AUTOSAR provides a set of specifications that describe basic software modules, defines application interfaces, and builds a common development methodology based on standardized exchange format. Basic software modules made available by the AUTOSAR layered software architecture can be used in vehicles of different manufacturers and electronic components of different suppliers, thereby reducing expenditures for research and development, and mastering the growing complexity of automotive electronic and software architectures.

Based on this guiding principle, AUTOS AR has been devised to pave the way for innovative electronic systems that further improve performance, safety and environmental friendliness and to facilitate the exchange and update of software and hardware over the service life of the vehicle. It aims to be prepared for the upcoming technologies and to improve cost-efficiency without making any compromise with respect to quality. AUTOSAR uses a three-layered architecture: Basic Software - standardized software modules mostly without any functional job itself that offers services necessary to run the functional part of the upper software layer; Runtime environment - Middleware which abstracts from the network topology for the inter- and intra-ECU information exchange between the application software components and between the Basic Software and the applications; and Application Layer - application software components that interact with the runtime environment.

System Configuration Description includes all system information and the information that must be agreed between different ECUs e. The executable software can be built from this information, the code of the basic software modules and the code of the software components. Vehicle bus. A vehicle bus is a specialized internal in-vehicle communications network that interconnects components inside a vehicle e.

Special requirements for vehicle control such as assurance of message delivery, of non-conflicting messages, of minimum time of delivery, of low cost, and of EMF noise resilience, as well as redundant routing and other characteristics mandate the use of less common networking protocols. A vehicle bus typically connects the various ECUs in the vehicle.

Any in-vehicle internal network that interconnects the various devices and components inside the vehicle may use any of the technologies and protocols described herein. In one example, the DC power lines in the vehicle may also be used as the communication medium, as described for example in U.

Patent No. A controller area network CAN bus is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer. It is a message-based protocol, designed originally for multiplex electrical wiring within automobiles, but is also used in many other contexts. Two or more nodes are required on the CAN network to communicate.

The node may also be a gateway allowing a standard computer to communicate over a USB or Ethernet port to the devices on a CAN network. All nodes are connected to each other through a two-wire bus. Conal Waiter son" f which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein. It usually has protective circuitry to protect the CAN controller, and in transmitting state converts the data stream from the CAN controller to CAN bus compliant levels.

Each node is able to send and receive messages, but not simultaneously. A message or Frame consists primarily of the ID identifier , which represents the priority of the message, and up to eight data bytes. The message is transmitted serially onto the bus using a non-return-to-zero NRZ format and may be received by all nodes. The devices that are connected by a CAN network are typically sensors, actuators, and other control devices.

A terminating bias circuit is power and ground provided together with the data signaling in order to provide electrical bias and termination at each end of each bus segment to suppress reflections. CAN data transmission uses a lossless bit-wise arbitration method of contention resolution.

This arbitration method requires all nodes on the CAN network to be synchronized to sample every bit on the CAN network at the same time. While some call CAN synchronous, the data is transmitted without a clock signal in an asynchronous format. The CAN specifications use the terms "dominant" bits and "recessive" bits where dominant is a logical '0' actively driven to a voltage by the transmitter and recessive is a logical T passively returned to a voltage by a resistor.

The idle state is represented by the recessive level Logical 1. If one node transmits a dominant bit and another node transmits a recessive bit, then there is a collision and the dominant bit "wins". This means there is no delay to the higher-priority message, and the node transmitting the lower priority message automatically attempts to re-transmit six bit clocks after the end of the dominant message.

This makes CAN very suitable as a real time prioritized communications system. The exact voltages for a logical level '0' or T depend on the physical layer used, but the basic principle of CAN requires that each node listen to the data on the CAN network including the data that the transmitting node is transmitting.

By using this process, any node that transmits a logical T when another node transmits a logical '0' "drops out" or loses the arbitration. A node that loses arbitration re-queues its message for later transmission and the CAN frame bit-stream continues without error until only one node is left transmitting. This means that the node that transmits the first T, loses arbitration. Since the 1 1 or 29 for CAN 2. The CAN protocol, like many networking protocols, can be decomposed into the following abstraction layers - Application layer.

Object layer including Message filtering and Message and status handling , and Transfer layer. Most of the CAN standard applies to the transfer layer. The transfer layer receives messages from the physical layer and transmits those messages to the object layer. The transfer layer is responsible for bit timing and synchronization, message framing, arbitration, acknowledgement, error detection and signaling, and fault confinement.

ISO 1 describes the electrical implementation formed from a multi- dropped single-ended balanced line configuration with resistor termination at each end of the bus. As such, the terminating resistors form an essential component of the signaling system and are included not just to limit wave reflection at high frequency. During a recessive state, the signal lines and resistor s remain in a high impedances state with respect to both rails.

A recessive state is only present on the bus when none of the transmitters on the bus is asserting a dominant state. During a dominant state the signal lines and resistor s move to a low impedance state with respect to the rails so that current flows through the resistor.

Irrespective of signal state the signal lines are always in low impedance state with respect to one another by virtue of the terminating resistors at the end of the bus. Multiple access on CAN bus is achieved by the electrical logic of the system supporting just two states that are conceptually analogous to a 'wired OR' network. The standard ISO 1 entitled: "Part 1: Data link layer and physical signalling' '' specifies the characteristics of setting up an interchange of digital information between modules implementing the CAN data link layer.

Controller area network is a serial communication protocol, which supports distributed real-time control and multiplexing for use within road vehicles and other control applications. ISO 1 contains detailed specifications of the following: logical link control sub-layer; medium access control sub-layer; and physical coding sub-layer. The standard ISO 1 entitled: "Part 4: Time-triggered communication " specifies time-triggered communication in the controller area network CAN : a serial communication protocol that supports distributed real-time control and multiplexing for use within road vehicles.

It is applicable to setting up a time-triggered interchange of digital information between electronic control units ECU of road vehicles equipped with CAN, and specifies the frame synchronization entity that coordinates the operation of both logical link and media access controls in accordance with ISO 1 , to provide the time-triggered communication schedule.

It describes the medium access unit functions as well as some medium dependent interface features according to ISO ISO 1 represents an extension of ISO 1 , dealing with new functionality for systems requiring low-power consumption features while there is no active bus communication. Implementations according to ISO 1 and ISO 1 are interoperable and can be used at the same time within one network.

It describes the medium access unit MAU functions. The standard ISO 1 entitled: "Road vehicles— Interchange of digital information on electrical connections between towing and towed vehicles— Part J: Physical and data-link layers" specifies the interchange of digital information between road vehicles with a maximum authorized total mass greater than 3 kg, and towed vehicles, including communication between towed vehicles in terms of parameters and requirements of the physical and data link layer of the electrical connection used to connect the electrical and electronic systems.

It also includes conformance tests of the physical layer. Its purpose is to standardize the method and format of transfer of data between sensors, actuators, control elements and information storage and display units. This bus is used on agricultural tractors. It is intended to provide interconnectivity between the tractor and any agricultural implement adhering to the standard. These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components e.

Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements. Requirements stated in this document will provide a minimum standard level of performance to which all compatible ECUs and media shall be designed. This will assure full serial data communication among all connected devices regardless of the supplier.

This document is to be referenced by the particular vehicle OEM Component Technical Specification which describes any given ECU, in which the single wire data link controller and physical layer interface is located. Primarily, the performance of the physical layer is specified in this document. This specification uses a different frame format that allows a different data length as well as optionally switching to a faster bit rate after the arbitration is decided.

LIN Local Interconnect Network is a serial network protocol used for communication between components in vehicles. LIN is a broadcast serial network comprising 16 nodes one master and typically up to 15 slaves. All messages are initiated by the master with at most one slave replying to a given message identifier. The master node can also act as a slave by replying to its own messages, and since all communications are initiated by the master it is not necessary to implement a collision detection.

The master and slaves are typically microcontrollers, but may be implemented in specialized hardware or ASICs in order to save cost, space, or power. Current uses combine the low-cost efficiency of LIN and simple sensors to create small networks that can be connected by a backbone network, i. The LIN bus is an inexpensive serial communications protocol, which effectively supports remote application within a car's network, and is particularly intended for mechatronic nodes in distributed automotive applications, but is equally suited to industrial applications.

The protocol's main features are single master, up to 16 slaves i. Single wire communications up to LIN is further described in U. Data is transferred across the bus in fixed form messages of selectable lengths. The master task transmits a header that consists of a break signal followed by synchronization and identifier fields. The slaves respond with a data frame that consists of between 2, 4 and 8 data bytes plus 3 bytes of control information.

Unconditional Frames always carry signals and their identifiers are in the range 0 to 59 0x00 to 0x3b and all subscribers of the unconditional frame shall receive the frame and make it available to the application assuming no errors were detected , and Event-triggered Frame, to increase the responsiveness of the LIN cluster without assigning too much of the bus bandwidth to the polling of multiple slave nodes with seldom occurring events.

The first data byte of the carried unconditional frame shall be equal to a protected identifier assigned to an event-triggered frame. A slave shall reply with an associated unconditional frame only if its data value has changed. If none of the slave tasks responds to the header, the rest of the frame slot is silent and the header is ignored. If more than one slave task responds to the header in the same frame slot a collision will occur, and the master has to resolve the collision by requesting all associated unconditional frames before requesting the event-triggered frame again.

Sporadic Frame is transmitted by the master as required, so a collision cannot occur. The header of a sporadic frame shall only be sent in its associated frame slot when the master task knows that a signal carried in the frame has been updated. The publisher of the sporadic frame shall always provide the response to the header. Diagnostic Frame always carries diagnostic or configuration data and they always contain eight data bytes. The identifier is either 60 0x3C , called master request frame, or 61 0x3D , called slave response frame.

Before generating the header of a diagnostic frame, the master task asks its diagnostic module if it shall be sent or if the bus shall be silent. The slave tasks publish and subscribe to the response according to their diagnostic module. User- Defined Frame carries any kind of information. Their identifier is 62 0x3E.

The header of a user-defined frame is usually transmitted when a frame slot allocated to the frame is processed. Reserved Frame are not be used in a LIN 2. The LIN specification was designed to allow very cheap hardware-nodes being used within a network. The LIN specification is based on ISO : standard entitled: "Road vehicles - Diagnostic systems - Requirements for interchange of digital information" that Specifies the requirements for setting up the interchange of digital information between on-board Electronic Control Units ECUs of road vehicles and suitable diagnostic testers.

This communication is established in order to facilitate inspection, test diagnosis and adjustment of vehicles, systems and ECUs. It does not apply when system-specific diagnostic test equipment is used. The microcontroller generates all needed LIN data by software and is connected to the LIN network via a LIN transceiver simply speaking, a level shifter with some add-ons.

Working as a LIN node is only part of the possible functionality. As LIN Slave nodes should be as cheap as possible, they may generate their internal clocks by using RC oscillators instead of crystal oscillators quartz or a ceramic.

These scheduling tables contain at least the relative timing, where the message sending is initiated. One LIN Frame consists of the two parts header and response. Two bus states— Sleep-mode and active— are used within the LIN protocol. While data is on the bus, all LIN-nodes are requested to be in active state. This frame may be sent by any node requesting activity on the bus, either the LIN Master following its internal schedule, or one of the attached LIN Slaves being activated by its internal software application.

After all nodes are awakened, the Master continues to schedule the next Identifier. MOST Media Oriented Systems Transport is a high-speed multimedia network teclmology optimized for use in an automotive application, and may be used for applications inside or outside the car.

Standardized interfaces simplify the MOST protocol integration in multimedia devices. For the system developer, MOST is primarily a protocol definition. It provides the user with a standardized interface API to access device functionality, and the communication functionality is provided by driver software known as MOST Network Services.

Plug and play functionality allows MOST devices to be easily attached and removed. MOST networks can also be set up in virtual star network or other topologies. Safety critical applications use redundant double ring configurations. A preamble is sent at the beginning of the frame transfer. The other devices, known as timing followers, use the preamble for synchronization. Encoding based on synchronous transfer allows constant post-sync for the timing followers.

MOST25 provides a bandwidth of approximately 23 megabaud for streaming synchronous as well as package asynchronous data transfer over an optical physical layer. It is separated into 60 physical channels. The user can select and configure the channels into groups of four bytes each. MOST25 provides many services and methods for the allocation and deallocation of physical channels. MOST also provides a channel for transferring control information. The system frequency of Control messages are used to configure MOST devices and configure synchronous and asynchronous data transfer.

The system frequency closely follows the CD standard. Reference data can also be transferred via the control channel. Because of the protocol overhead, the application can use only 1 1 of 32 bytes at segmented transfer and a MOST node can only use one third of the control channel bandwidth at any time.

The three established channels control message channel, streaming data channel, packet data channel of MOST25 remain the same, but the length of the control channel and the sectioning between the synchronous and asynchronous channels are flexible. MOST was introduced in October and provides a physical layer to implement Ethernet in automobiles.

It increases the frame length up to bits, which is about 6 times the bandwidth of MOST It also integrates an Ethernet channel with adjustable bandwidth in addition to the three established channels control message channel, streaming data channel, packet data channel of the other grades of MOST. MOST also permits isochronous transfer on the synchronous channel. MOST ' s advanced functions and enhanced bandwidth will enable a multiplex network infrastructure capable of transmitting all forms of infotainment data, including video, throughout an automobile.

The optical transmission layer uses Plastic Optical Fibers POF with a core diameter of 1 mm as transmission medium, in combination with light emitting diodes LEDs in the red wavelength range as transmitters. The bus operates on a time cycle, divided into two parts: the static segment and the dynamic segment. The static segment is preallocated into slices for individual communication types, providing a stronger real-time guarantee than its predecessor CAN.

The dynamic segment operates more like CAN, with nodes taking control of the bus as available, allowing event- triggered behavior. FlexRay specification Version 3. The clock drift must be not more than 0. At each time, only one ECU writes to the bus, and each bit to be sent is held on the bus for 8 sample clock cycles. The receiver keeps a buffer of the last 5 samples, and uses the majority of the last 5 samples as the input signal.

Single-cycle transmission errors may affect results near the boundary of the bits, but will not affect cycles in the middle of the 8-cycle region. The value of the bit is sampled in the middle of the 8-bit region. The errors are moved to the extreme cycles, and the clock is synchronized frequently enough for the drift to be small Drift is smaller than 1 cycle per cycles, and during transmission the clock is synchronized more than once every cycles.

Further, the vehicular communication system employed may be used so that vehicles may communicate and exchange information with other vehicles and with roadside units, may allow for cooperation and may be effective in increasing safety such as sharing safety information, safety warnings, as well as traffic information, such as to avoid traffic congestion.

In safety applications, vehicles that discover an imminent danger or obstacle in the road may inform other vehicles directly, via other vehicles serving as repeaters, or via roadside units. Further, the system may help in deciding right to pass first at intersections, and may provide alerts or warning about entering intersections, departing highways, discovery of obstacles, and lane change warnings, as well as reporting accidents and other activities in the road.

The system may be used for traffic management, allowing for easy and optimal traffic flow control, in particular in the case of specific situations such as hot pursuits and bad weather. The traffic management may be in the form of variable speed limits, adaptable traffic lights, traffic intersection control, and accommodating emergency vehicles such as ambulances, fire trucks and police cars.

The vehicular communication system may further be used to assist the drivers, such as helping with parking a vehicle, cruise control, lane keeping, and road sign recognition. Similarly, better policing and enforcement may be obtained by using the system for surveillance, speed limit warning, restricted entries, and pull-over commands.

The system may be integrated with pricing and payment systems such as toll collection, pricing management, and parking payments. The system may further be used for navigation and route optimization, as well as providing travel-related information such as maps, business location, gas stations, and car service locations.

Similarly, the system may be used for emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control, cooperative forward collision warning, intersection collision avoidance, approaching emergency vehicle warning Blue Waves , vehicle safety inspection, transit or emergency vehicle signal priority, electronic parking payments, commercial vehicle clearance and safety inspections, in-vehicle signing, rollover warning, probe data collection, highway-rail intersection warning, and electronic toll collection.

OBD systems give the vehicle owner or repair technician access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems. Modern OBD implementations use a standardized digital communications port to provide real-time data in addition to a standardized series of diagnostic trouble codes, or DTCs, which allow one to rapidly identify and remedy malfunctions within the vehicle.

This protocol covers the application layer in the OSI model of computer networking. K P also covers the session layer in the OSI model, in terms of starting, maintaining and terminating a communications session, and the protocol is standardized by International Organization for Standardization as ISO One underlying physical layer used for KWP is identical to ISO , with bidirectional serial communication on a single line called the K-line.

In addition, there is an optional L-line for wakeup. The data rate is between 1. When implemented on a K-line physical layer, KWP requires special wakeup sequences: 5-baud wakeup and fast- initialization. Both of these wakeup methods require timing critical manipulation of the K-line signal, and are therefore not easy to reproduce without custom software.

CAN is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to K-line because the CAN bus is usually present in modem-day vehicles and thus removing the need to install an additional physical cable. KWP can be implemented on CAN using just the service layer and session layer no header specifying length, source and target addresses is used and no checksum is used ; or using all layers header and checksum are encapsulated within a CAN frame.

ISO entitled: "Road vehicles— Diagnostic communication over K- Line DoK-Line — Part 1: Physical layer", which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein, specifies the physical layer, based on ISO , on which the diagnostic services will be implemented.

ISO entitled: "Road vehicles— Diagnostic communication over K- Line DoK-Line - Part 2: Data link layer", which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein, specifies data link layer services tailored to meet the requirements of UART-based vehicle communication systems on K-Line as specified in ISO It has been defined in accordance with the diagnostic services established in ISO and ISO -5, but is not limited to use with them, and is also compatible with most other communication needs for in-vehicle networks.

The protocol specifies an unconfirmed communication. This is important since a server supports only one of the protocols mentioned above and the client has to handle the coexistence of all protocols during the protocol-determination procedure. The application layer is described in ISO : entitled: "Road vehicles — Diagnostic systems - Keyword Protocol - Part 3: Application layer', and the requirements for emission-related systems are described in ISO entitled: ''Road vehicles— Diagnostic systems— Keyword Protocol — Part 4: Requirements or emission-related systems", which are both incorporated in their entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein.

Fleetwide vehicle telematics systems and methods that includes receiving and managing fleetwide vehicle state data are described in U. The fleetwide vehicle state data may be fused or compared with customer enterprise data to monitor conformance with customer requirements and thresholds. The fleetwide vehicle state data may also be analyzed to identify trends and correlations of interest to the customer enteiprise.

Automotive Ethernet. Automotive Ethernet refers to the use of an Ethernet-based network for connections between in-vehicle electronic systems, and typically defines a physical network that is used to connect components within a car using a wired network. It was commercially introduced in and first standardized in as IEEE The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling valiants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet.

Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols trigger retransmission of lost frames. As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer. Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of backward compatibility.

Features such as the bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols. Simple switched Ethernet networks, while a great improvement over repeater-based Ethernet, suffer from single points of failure, attacks that trick switches or hosts into sending data to a machine even if it is not intended for it, scalability and security issues with regard to switching loops, broadcast radiation and multicast traffic, and bandwidth choke points where a lot of traffic is forced down a single link.

Advanced networking features also ensure port security, provide protection features such as MAC lockdown and broadcast radiation filtering, use virtual LANs to keep different classes of users separate while using the same physical infrastructure, employ multilayer switching to route between different classes, and use link aggregation to add bandwidth to overloaded links and to provide some redundancy.

IEEE A data packet on an Ethernet link is called an Ethernet packet, which transports an Ethernet frame as its payload. Each Ethernet frame starts with an Ethernet header, which contains destination and source MAC addresses as its first two fields.

The middle section of the frame is payload data including any headers for other protocols for example, Internet Protocol carried in the frame. The frame ends with a frame check sequence FCS , which is a bit cyclic redundancy check used to detect any in-transit corruption of data. Automotive Ethernet is described in a book by Charles M.

Kozierok, Colt Correa, Robert B. A published May by Ixia entitled: Automotive Ethernet: An Overview", which are both incorporated in their entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein. The data is transmitted over a single copper pair, 3 bits per symbol PAM3 , and it supports only full-duplex, transmitting in both directions simultaneously.

The twisted-pair cable is required to support 66 MHz, with a maximum length of 15 m. This allows automotive manufacturers to incorporate multiple electronic systems and devices, such as advanced safety features i.

Marx and state. Democracy and state. Theories of social stratification-functionalist and conflict theories. Deviance and Social Control 1. Crime and deviance, functions and dysfunction of crime, types of crime and criminal. Etiology of crime and deviance, biological, psychological and sociological theories. Social control-signification and agencies of social control. Formal and informal agencies. Population and Society 1. Fertility, mortality and migration.

Population growth and problem, causes and consequences of population growth. Theories-Malthus, Demographic transition, optimum, population theory. Solutions to population problem. Social Change 1. The concept of social changes. Theories of social change linear theories-Comte, Spencer, Hobhbouse, Marx.

Planned social change. The People of Bangladesh 1. Race : the racial characteristics of the people of Bangladesh. Major religious communities of Bangladesh. The land, people of physical environment 2. The major archeological sites of Bangladesh 1. Mahastan Garh. The Indus Valley Civilization 1. Brief history of the civilization. Glimpses of Social History of Bangladesh 1.

Society and economy of pre-British Bengal. Self-sufficient village communities. The advent of the British Rule in Sub-Continent and its impact. Social background of the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state.

Rural and Urban Society of Bangladesh 1. Rural and urban life : an overview. Rural and urban social stratification. Power structure : rural and urban. Family, Marriage and Kinship in Bangladesh 1. Family, types, rule and functions.

Marriage, types, role and functions. Kinship- types, role and functions. Industrial society : an overview. Importance of Industrialization. Obstacles to industrialization. Major urban problems. Impact of urbanization and industrialization upon the society of Bangladesh.

The Ethnic Societies of Bangladesh Some major ethnic societies 1. The Chakma society 2. The Marma society 3. The Garo society 4. The Santal society 9. Social Problems in Bangladesh Some selected problems 1. Social change in Bangladesh 1.

The concept in social change. Present social structure of Bangladesh. Social change in Bangladesh-causes and consequences-problems and prospects. Welfare State. Social work in Developing countries. Scope and importance of Community development in Bangladesh. Social Action as method of social change. International Relations Paper-I Marks : 1.

Evolution of the International society, Development of the modern state system. Concepts of power, balance of powers, balance of terror, polarity of power, national power and collective security. Global environmental degradation and its causes, nature and consequences-Rio Summit- Kyoto Protocol.

Non-Aligned Movement and Commonwealth. Feminism and Post-Feminism. Paradigm of Public Administration. Politics-Administration Dichotomy. New Public Administration. Issues and Challenges. Contribution of Elton Mayo C. Theories of Leadership. Role of Leadership in Organizational Effectiveness.

The Philosophy of the Constitution of Bangladesh and it's provision on Public Administrative System, Secretariat, Attached Departments, Directorate and their relationship, public corporation : purpose, structure, Functions. Administrative Reforms in Bangladesh, Recommendations of the main reform committees, Recent trend in Administrative Reforms, Political Commitment to administrative reforms. Impact of E-Governance on Public Administration. Rural Development and National Development. Definition, meaning and scope of Home Management a.

Home Management as a course of study. As a responsibility of manager of family. Scope and application of management principles. Functions of Home Management a. Function of a home manager b. Management of Resources in Day to day living a. Guidelines for the use of resources.

Motivational components in the management of resources. Financial Management a. Courses of control of fatigue. Ways of improving work in the home same time. Housing needs of the family. Planning the Family wardrobe a. Special emphasis on budget, occupation, climate, family composition, fashion accessories etc. Textile Fibers : a. Characteristics of fibers- i Physical characteristics ii Chemical characteristics iii Basic Performance characteristics.

Identification of Textile fibers : a. Physical methods-feeling test, moisture test, burning test. Chemical and other methods 4. Finishing Processes of fibers : a. Process of manufacturing fiber c. Fashioning clothing and Textiles a. Factors inflecting changer in fashion c. Principle of Childs development. Functions of Family :- a. Stages of family life cycle and changer in family functions. Family Relations- a. Factors influencing family relation b.

Function of food in the body b. Relation between health, food and nutrition 2. Carbohydrate, b Proteins, c Lets, d Vitamins, e Minerals. Balanced Diets a. Principles of planning balanced diets using food groups. Factors influencing planning of balanced diets. Therapeutic Diet a. Kinds of Therapeutic diets. Food Contamination and Food Spoilage- a Censer of food contamination, food borne diseases. Nutrition situation in Bangladesh a.

Anthropology and its relation with other social science. Schools of Anthropology Historical Development of Anthropology. Schools-Evolutionism, Diffusions, Frustrations, structuralism, and structural functionalism. Anthropological Research Methods Participant Observation, in-depth interview, focus group discussion, Case study and oval history.

Kinship, family and Marriage Kinship-Definition, Classification and types. Role and Function of family. Marriage-definition, type, incest and Taboo. Religion Religion-Definition, evolution, theories, Role and Function of religion. Magic and Science. Social Change Change, Evolution and Development.

Theories of Social change. Factors of social change. Economic Organization Meaning and definition, ownership and inheritance, Division of labour, tools and Technology, trade and market system, Exchange, reciprocity and redistribution. Archaeology Archaeology and prehistory, Major Archaeological discoveries, Archaeological sites in Bangladesh.

Anthropology and Bangladesh society, culture, importance of Anthropological studies in Bangladesh. Major Anthropological works in Bangladesh scope of Anthropological researches in Bangladesh. Anthropology Paper-II Marks : 1. Anthropology in the present world : Understanding the colonialism.

Role of Anthropologists in developed and developing countries. Technique of production and social change : Primitive communism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and Asiatic mode of production. Races and Human Variation : Definition and problems, biological and social perspective, myths and conflicts, Ethnology and Bengali population.

Urban Society and Culture : Definition, Urbanization and Urbanism, growth of urban centres, urban problems in Bangladesh. Evolution and development of paper, writing, printing press and book making from the earliest age to present times. History of libraries during ancient period. Babylonian and Assyrian libraries; Egyptian, Greek, Roman libraries. Libraries during the Middle ages, Renaissance and Reformation. Libraries in the modern world. Status of libraries in Bangladesh. Principles of collection development; Acquisitions policy of library materials; Evaluation and selection of library materials.

Principles of selection and evaluation in different kinds of information Institutions: School, College, University, Special, Public and National libraries. National: Bangladesh national bibliography, Bangla sahitya granthapanji, Shishu Sahitya granthapanji, Books in print from Bangladesh, Boiar khabar, Boi, trade catalogues. Book reviews and Annotations. Copyright and censorship; Operation of copyright laws; Copyright law of Bangladesh, ; Selection of controversial materials; Weeding Banned books.

Elements in catalogue entry. Definition, purpose, functions of a catalogue. Characteristics of an ideal catalogue; comparative analysis of different physical forms of catalogue. Types and kinds of catalogue: The Inner form construction of classified and Dictionary catalogue. Sears list of subject headings: Uses, Purposes of subject headings.

Steps to subject determination. Principles of construction directions for using the list. Basic elements of automated cataloguing. OPAC vs. Superiority of online catalogue, Reasons for introducing automated online integrated catalogue. Purposes of classification. Principles of book classification. Mnemonic values of DDC. Notation: Definition, functions, criteria of good notation. Rules for classifying books. Definition, use, importance and scope of Bibliography. Different types, examples, sources of Bibliography.

Bibliography vs. Methods of preparing Bibliography; various styles and systems of preparing entries. Bibliographical control, Copyright. Bibliographical services in Bangladesh. Kinds of reference services, sources, materials. Evaluation of reference materials. Reference functions. Reference sources in Bangladesh. Major encyclopedias, bibliographies, biographical sources, catalogues, indexes, abstracts published in Bangladesh. Rotational Motion: Angular velocity, Angular acceleration, Uniformly accelerated angular motion, Torque, Kinetic energy of rotation, Angular momentum, Moment of inertia.

Surface Tension : Adhesive force, Cohesive force, Molecular theory of surface tension, Surface energy and surface tension, Angle of contact and capillarity. Rocket motion. Generalized coordinates. Postulates of special theory of relativity. Lorentz transformation.

Relativistic equations of motion. Postulates of quantum mechanics. Probability in quantum mechanics. Fundamental commulation relations. Operators and Eigenvalue equation. Eigenvalue and Eigenfunctions. Hermitian operators. Eigenvalues of the angular momentum operator. Spin angular momentum operator. Approxmation methods. WKB Approxmation. Photoelectric effect. Compton effect.

De Broglie wave. Electron diffraction. Atomic spectra. Electronics configuration of atom. Molecular spectra. Three and four level lasers. Properties of a laser beam. Applications of lasers. Nuclear binding energy, Liquid drop model, Shell model. Radioactive decay, Decay law. Alpha particle emission, Beta decay. Gamma radiation. Nuclear fission and fusion.

Nuclear reactor. Elementary particles. Unit cell. Madelung constant. Theory of specific hearts. Einstein and Debye model. Consequences of defects on Mechanical properties. Band theory of solids. Charge carrier. Introduction to high Tc superconductivity.

Breakdown Avalance and Zener Mechanism Rectification. Electromagnetic : L. R circuits. Induction Alternating : Generation of alternating E. Impedances in A. Physical : Electron theory of metals, Fermi Dirac distribution function, Fermi level, Electronics Band theory of solids, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Hall effect. C equivalent circuit with Y. Small signal analysis of a transistor amplifier using H parameter at low frequency, small signal JFET parameters.

Transistor : Different methods of transistor biasing, D. C and A. C operating Amplifier Circuits characteristics, Amplifying action of a transistor, Classification of amplifiers, Tuned amplifier, Power amplifier, Negative feedback amplifier. Oscillator Circuits : Principle of positive feedback, Tuned collector oscillator, Hartley oscillator, Phase shift oscillator, negative resistance oscillator, Crystal oscillator, Frequency stability.

Schmitt trigger, Blocking oscillator, Voltage time base generators. Atomic Structure, Periodic table and Classification of elements, Chemical bonds, Oxidation and reductions, Detailed group chemistry. Radioactivity, Nuclear reactions and atomic energy, Elementary aspects of environmental chemistry. Aromatic and heterocyclic substitution reactions.

Principles of manufacturing common organic and inorganic industrial products. Disposal of Industrial wastes. Acids, Bases, Nucleophiles, Electrophiles. Comprehensive treatment of solvolytic reactions substitution reactions of ambidient nucleophiles, Multicentre addition reactions, Carbonium ion rearrangements. Importance of Chemical technological processes. Development of Chemical technology, Classification of Chemical technological processes.

Site selection for chemical industry. Unit process and unit operation. Design and implementation of a chemical project. Problems of Chemical Process Industries in Bangladesh and their solutions. Corrosion : Corrosion damage.

Types of Corrosion. Corrosion prevention. Electrochemical aspects of Corrosion, Corrosion Testing. Coal and Petroleum. Principles of industrial separation processes. Construction details of plate column, sieve column. Refrigeration and Air conditioning : Basic theory. Compression and Absorption Refrigeration Cycles.

Ammonia Absorption machines. Air and water pollution. Greenhouse effect. Ozone hole. Kyoto protocol. Industrial waste management. Water conditioning and water treatment. Physical and chemical methods of treatment. Municipal water supply. Boiler feed water. Water treatment plants in Bangladesh. Sulphur and sulphuric Acid : Sources of sulphur, Recovery of sulfur from nature, Manufacture of sulphuric acid, Environmental aspects. Fertilizer Industry : Technological aspects of Fertilizer industries of Bangladesh.

Ammonia, Urea and triple sugperphosphate manufacturing processes. Environmental aspects. Sugar industry : Manufacture of sugar from sugarcane and sugar beat. Utilization of byproducts. Sugar Industry in Bangladesh. Coal : Coal deposits in Bangladesh. Composition, classification, carbonization, gasification. Utilization and environmental aspects. Petroleum : Atmospheric and Vacuum distillation. Thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, Reforming, Hydrocracking.

Products of petroleum processing and their uses. Petroleum refining industry in Bangladesh. Glass and Ceramics. Composition, classification, manufacturing processes, special glasses and ceramic products. Cement : Classification, strength of cement. Cement kilns. Manufacturing processes.

Cement industry in Bangladesh. Electrolytic process for caustic soda and chlorine. Diaphragm, Mercury and Membrane processes. Plastic Industry : Polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethylacrylate, polystyrene. Pulp, Paper and Rayon Industries : Manufacturing processes and their comparisons. Algebra, Analytical Geometry, Linear Algebra. Order properties of real numbers. Complex numbers.

Summation of finite algebraic and trigonometric series. Polynomials and their roots. Descartes rule of signs. Relation between roots and coefficients. Symmetric functions of roots. Analytical Geometry 1. Pairs of straight lines. Transformation of coordinates. General equation of the second degree. Reduction to standard forms. Conics in general. Planes and straight lines in three dimensions. Shortest distance between two straight lines. Vector algebra with applications to geometry. Linear Algebra 1.

Algebra of Matrices. Systems of linear equations and their solutions. Vector spaces over the field of real numbers. Linear dependence and independence of vectors. Basis and dimension. Linear transformations. Rank and nullity. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Sets of real numbers.

Supremum and infimum. The Archimendian property. Convergence of infinite sequences and series of real numbers. Standard theorems and tests of convergence. Absolute convergence. Continuous functions. Intermediate value theorem. Uniform continuity. The derivative. Mean value theorems. Indeterminate forms. Maxima, minima, tangents and normals. Indefinite integrals. Techniques of integration. Recurrence Relations. The Riemann integral. The fundamental theorem of calculus. Improper integrals.

Tests of convergence. Determination of areas and volumes. Five questions will be set from each group; candidates will be required to answer SIX questions, taking at least TWO from each group. Mechanics 1. General conditions of equilibrium. Principle of virtual work. Stable and unstable equilibrium. Centre of gravity. Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion. Motion in a plane. Motion under a central force. Dynamics of rigid bodies. Moments of inertia. Motion about a fixed axis. Methods of Applied Mathematics 1.

Ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Liner equations with constant coefficients. Solution of differential equations in series. Beata and Gamma functions. Special functions : Legendre, Hermite and Languerre polynomials; Bessel functions. Generating functions, recurrence relations and other properties. Complex functions. Analytic function. Complex integration. Taylor and Laurent expansions. Singularities, poles and residues. Evaluation of definite integrals.

Five questions will be set form each group; candidates will be required to answer SIX questions, taking at least TWO from each group. Astatic, stable and unstable equilibrium. Forces in three dimensions. Radial and transverse velocities; central, tangential and normal acceleration.

Central forces. Differentiation and integration. Inverse Laplace transform and convolution. Solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Open and closed sets, Compact sets, perfect set and cantor set. Derivative of a function. Partial differentiation. Limit, Continuity and differentiability of complex function. Harmonic functions. Mobius transformation and power series. Singularities, Classification of singularities. Fundamental theorem of algebra. The residue theorem.

Contour integration. Steady and unsteady flows. Stream lines, path lines, vortex lines and velocity potential. Rotational and irrotational flows. Equation of continuity. Complex potential and complex velocity, stagnation points, Complex potential due to a source and a doublet. Circulation and vorticity, relation between circulation and vorticity. Prion and viroid : Structure, properties and importance. Bacteria : Classification different types , reproduction, Bacterial photosynthesis, transformation and transduction.

Economic importance of microbes Mycology and Plant pathology : 1. Modern classification of fungi and the bases of classification 2. Economic importance of fungi 3. Concept and causes of plant diseases 4. Control of plant diseases. Symptom, causal agents, disease cycle control measures of the following diseases : i. Blast of rice, ii. Stem rust of wheat, iii.

Late blight of potato, iv. Stem rot of jute, v. Red rot of sugarcane, vi. Tungro disease of rice, vii. Panama disease of banana. Physiology : 1. Modern classification of algae based on different characters. General characteristics of all the major division of algae. Range of vegetative structures in algae. Higher Cryptogams : 1. Characteristic features and methods of reproduction with examples. Distribution of bryophyte and pteridophyte genera in Bangladesh with examples.

Angiosperms : 1. Concept about ICBN, cytotaxonomy, chaemotaxonomy, ecotype and biosystematics. Different systems of classification i Artificial; ii Natural and iii Phylogenetic. Definition and importance of herbarium. Information and activities of world herbaria including Bangladesh. Plant anatomy : 1. Stele in Pteridophyte 2. Vascular tissue system in angiosperms. Meristem origin, classification, structure, development and function Embryology of Angiosperms : 1.

Different types of embryo sac and their development with examples. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : 2. Photosynthesis : Details of C3 and C4 pathways. Respiration : i Aerobic respiration, Glycolysis, ii Anaerobic respiration, fermentation with special reference to alcohol fermentation. Physiological and biological nitrogen fixation. Mechanism of salt absorption. Dormancy, Phtotoperiodism and Vernalization. Biosynthesis of some important carbohydrates a Sucrose, b Starch and c Cellulose.

Alkaloids : a Classification with examples and distribution and b importance of alkaloids. Fats : a Chemical constitution of fatty acid and b Biosynthesis of fatty acid. Cytology and Cytogenetics: 1. Chromosome : Physical structures 2. Karyotype and genome analysis 3. Chromosomal aberrations Genetics and Molecular Genetics : 1. Sex determination 3. Plasmid : Structure, function and importance. Genetic engineering for crop improvement. Tissue Culture : 1. Cell suspension culture.

Somatic embryogenesis. Haploid production. Clonal propagation and its commercial application. Horticulture : 1. Classification of fertilizer, composition, doses, application and procedures 2. Application of growth regulating chemicals in horticulture Ethonobotany : 1.

Medicinal plants of Bangladesh, their conservation and sustainable use. Ecology : 1. Methods of studying vegetation. Ecosystem : i Structure and components of ecosystem, ii Pond ecosystem 3. Pollution : Kinds of pollution, harmful effects, effects of dams and embankment on vegetation.

Methods of measurement of primary production. Factors limiting primary productivity in aquatic and terrestrial communities. Environmental hazards : Green house effect, ozone depletion, desertification, aridity and drought.

Salinity flood and water logging in the light of Bangladesh condition. Different forest types and forest area of Bangladesh, causes of depletion of forests of Bangladesh and the ways and means to prevent it. Polymorphism and coral reefs in Cnidaria. Structure and formation of shell in Mollusca, Economic importance of mollusca. Water vascular systems in Echinodermata. Metamorphosis in Ascidia. Affinities of Ascidia. Types of Scales and fins in Pisces. Economic importance of toad and frogs.

Ecology a Ecosystem, food chain, food web; food pyramids, ecosystem of a typical pond. Human Physiology, reproduction and population dynamics. Economic Zoology. Factors responsible in decline of fishery resources in Bangladesh. Malaria eradication and measures of mosquito controls. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy change, Standard free energy change of chemical and biochemical reactions. Biomolecules: i Carbohydrates: Nomenclature, classification, structures and important reactions, mutarotation and optical properties.

Sequencing of proteins. Structures of phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol. Nutrition i Classification of food, importance of carbohydrate, proteins and fat, their energy values. SDA, RQ. Coenzyme activity of Vitamin B Complexes. Physiology i Blood: composition, function, blood cells, blood grouping, Heart structure and coronary heart diseases. Endocrinology: Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone actions, synthesis, physiological functions and biochemical functions of Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic and gonad hormones.

Host control restriction and modification,cloning of particular gene in different vectors, Polymerase chain reaction PCR , Human Genome Project. Preparation of buffers. Buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems.

Applications of chromatography in pharmaceutical fields. Properties and uses of antioxidants. Formulation considerations. Vehicles, additives and containers. Anticaries and antiplaque agents. Properties and types of dentifrices, formulation of powder dentifrices and pasts. First pass effect, bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. Physical properties of soil: soil as a three — phase disperse system; mass and volume relationship of soil constituents; soil texture; soil structure — classification, evaluation, management and importance; soil water — energy state of soil water, soil water potential; retention and movement of water in soil; concepts of available water; soil air and soil temperature.

Irrigation and drainage: sources and quality of irrigation water; methods of irrigation; irrigation requirements of major crops of Bangladesh; irrigation projects in Bangladesh; drainage — types and benefits. Soil survey and soil classification: different types of soil survey; techniques of soil survey; agricultural and non agricultural uses of soil survey data; soil Taxonomy; properties and uses of soil orders.

Land evaluation: concept of land evaluation; techniques and importance of land evaluation; land use planning. Soil of Bangladesh: general condition of soil formation in Bangladesh; nature of soil forming factors; dominant soil forming processes; characteristics of major soil groups; agro ecological zones of Bangladesh. Soil fertility and plant nutrition: concepts of soil fertility and soil productivity; essential nutrient elements — macro — and micronutrients; physiological function of N,P and K; fertilizers — sources, types and grades; fertilizer law; diagnosis of fertilizer needs in soil; methods of fertilizer application; residual effects of fertilizer; manures and compost; nutrient status and fertilizer needs of different AEZ of Bangladesh.

Soil pollution: sources of pollutants in soil; effects of soil pollution on ecosystem and food quality; permissible limits of heavy metals in soil, plants, sewage sludge, city wastes, irrigation water, industrial wastes and effluents; waste management. Soil degradation and conservation: types and processes of soil degradation; assessment of soil degradation; soil quality — concept and assessment; soil conservation and reclamation — principles of soil conservation; agronomic and mechanical practices of soil conservation.

Environmental or Green Accounting. Cost Accounting : 50 1. Financial Accounting Vs Cost Accounting. Accounting for materials, labor and overhead. Accounting procedures for Job, Batch and Contract Costing. Auditing : 25 1. Auditing standards and Auditing Profession in Bangladesh. Income Tax : 25 1. Assessment procedure of Income Tax for Individuals and companies.

Income Tax Authority in Bangladesh. Intermediate term and long term financing. Corporate Management Separation of ownership and professional management, methods of company management, board of directors, size, qualification, methods of appointment, functions, duties and responsibilities, powers, code of conduct, corporate executive and chief executive officer CEO. Human Resource Management Importance, selection and recruitment of staff, training, appraisal, Compensation, promotion, termination, retirement, personnel administration.

Planning Importance, nature, purpose, types, steps, objectives, managing by objectives MBO , strategic planning, decision making. Nutritional, Metabolic and Environmental diseases : Protein energy malnutrition, Obesity, Diseases due to Vitamin deficiency and excess.

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Ensuring a Safe Space for Batteries. Bottom Paint Removal Decision Time. Bulletproof Sailboat Deck Hardware. Making Your Own Workshop Filter. Antifouling Exposure Risks. All Cabin Comfort Galley Ventilation. Better Living with USB. Additives Fight Urine Odor. Feeling the Breeze. Slick Whoopie Slings for Sailors. The Many Faces of Tiller Extensions.

Keep it Simple Sail Repair Kit. Anchoring Mooring Checking Rope Strength. June 14, Subscriber Only Stowing Gear on Deck. Boathandling Sailboat Safety on Deck. Latest News. Disposable propane cylinders are darn handy, powering stern-rail grills, propane torches, and catalytic cabin heaters. If you're going to sail you'll be doing some stitching-no two ways about it. That doesn't mean you have to go overboard with sail repair tools.

Start with a modest kit, adding tools and materials only as your skills grow and projects require them. Chances are, you already have most of what you need in your other supply lockers or tool boxes. Unless the Purchase and Sale Agreement or the Acceptance of Vessel forms specify otherwise, the buyer is responsible for any work that is done Our approach to chafe protection for the upcoming storm season was straight out of the old-salt playbook.

Using a sharp knife and metal straight edge, we lopped off the size of leather we needed. Designed for senior students of energy faculties of maritime educational institutions, as well as for ship mechanics and electricians. The manual consists of ten sections, in each of which I 4 are thematically combined texts, accompanied by a dictionary and questions. At the end of the section are placed exercises that will strengthen the new vocabulary, use it in a different context, break the speaking skills, as well as the repetition of various grammatical structures.

The textbook contains textual authentic materials in English detailing the main topics of professional communication in the field of maritime business and law payment terms in international trade, various types of cargo transportation, types of su donor and cargo transportation and logistic scheme of their transportation, incotermines, obligations of the freight forwarding agency, types of charter parties, bills of lading, insurance documents, general and private accident and others.

Audio application and key answers to exercises and exercises provide an opportunity for independent learning of the English language. English for ship chefs, bartenders, stewards, waiters, as well as bartenders and bakers - is the ideal way to improve and test the professional knowledge of vessel crew members in almost all areas of their professional activities. In the introduction, the author modestly limits the use of the compiled by him allowance to the framework of professional English.

In our opinion, the manual is an ideal means of training and testing the knowledge of specialists not only in the sphere of their direct activities, but also their readiness for work at sea. English textbook for court personnel - Slinyavchuk V. The basics of the language, grammatical rules, a brief dictionary with transcription in accordance with modern requirements are presented for each lesson.

Examples are based on common colloquial phrases. Samples of documents are provided that are required to be filled out when applying for a job. English for the commanding staff of vessels of mixed river-sea navigation - O. Boriskin - Maritime Book - English textbook for sailors with a bias for ships of mixed river-sea navigation.

In addition to the main file of the book, there are several additional files with applications and additions that may be useful. Also a small English-Russian dictionary of words and expressions. English for Navigators - is intended for the senior courses of navigational faculties of maritime educational institutions, the cadets of which have mastered the basics of the English language.

The sequence in the arrangement of the material is determined by the plan of passing special disciplines. The manual can be used by cadets of maritime educational institutions and the navigational composition of transport and fishing vessels.

Focus on shiphandling - Svetlana Vasilievna, Danilova Vladimir, Kuzmin, Olga Sapunova, Rob Sint-Nicolaas - GMA Publishing House - The manual is intended for the development of communication skills and covers the issues of ship management in situations of pilotage, anchoring, towing and mooring. The book covers an unusually large range of issues, ranging from the general structure of the vessel, and its component parts, to specific issues on working on containers and RO-RO. Many illustrations, in fact, each term is marked with a picture.

The book is useful for those sailors who have just started learning English. This book has become the progenitor of many other books. The textbook is addressed to the one who studies marine English or needs help on specific topics. The manual is intended mainly for persons with primary and secondary levels of English. The textbook is a basic marine conversational course for all specialties.

In the texts and dialogues, the most common situations of stay and work on the ship are affected. For example, the daily routine, safety equipment on board, ship orientation, fire fighting, ordering products, etc. Issues of a particular maritime specialty are discussed in other textbooks in this series. Recommended for individual and coursework. The main purpose of this textbook is to master professional vocabulary and teams that cover the following topics: ship design; deck works and tools; ropes and knots; anchoring; mooring; watch keeping; teams steering; reception of the pilot; towing; prevention of environmental pollution.

It is recommended for individual and coursework for members of the ordinary crew of the deck crew. The manual is intended for ship mechanics and engine mechanics with basic knowledge of English. The main goal of the textbook is mastering professional vocabulary, as well as the development of the skill of reading and translation of special texts.

The manual includes a thematic dictionary on ship mechanics for 1, words, expressions and abbreviations. The Book is intended for ship mechanics and engine mechanics with basic knowledge of English. English for ship electricians - This training manual is addressed to all who wish to master the English language and replenish their knowledge of marine electro-mechanics in intensive courses.

English for ship mechanics This teaching aid is addressed to all who wish to master the English language and replenish their knowledge in the field of ship mechanics at intensive courses in the Ukrainian Crewing Company Transcontract.

Here are collected special terms and the most common vocabulary of the English language, necessary to work on the contract in the English-speaking crew. The training materials include an audio and video course developed with the participation of native speakers. Anglomar study English: Naval English - Yu. Belaya - Solikamsk Printing House - In the modern business world, especially the sea, a lot depends on mutual understanding.

Correctly understand each other can only be communicating in the competent international language, which is English. You are now holding in your hands a wonderful manual on the English language, which will help you to achieve this. The manual is developed in addition to the programs "Anglomar" and "Standard phrases".

It will provide you with the opportunity to achieve mutual understanding in working with the crew, facilitate communication with any officials, help you understand the messages addressed to you, the doctor's advice, and, of course, prepare for the test under the Anglomar and Standard Phrases programs. An introductory course of marine engineering english- The system of communication exercises will provide users with the mastery of elementary skills to verbally communicate in English in situations related to: employment and the signing of an employment contract; an independent trip of a sailor abroad and his return home; arrival on a foreign ship; ship orientation; taking office; the adoption of his supervisor and the duties of the shift.

English for ship engineers - Bogomolov OS - - is the course of study started in the book "Introductory course of maritime English for students of engineering and engineering" by the same author. The attention of future and already working ship engineers is offered 48 technical, administrative and legal texts, giving a complete picture of the written English language of their profession.

Thematic vocabulary on the device, operation and maintenance of the main and auxiliary mechanisms and systems of ships and ships total 1, units is presented in the English-Russian alphabetical dictionary, the presence of transcription in which significantly facilitates the independent work of students.

Proper use of repair vocabulary is shown in the assignment. This text-book has been written in accordance with the requirements and contents of the "English Language" syllabus for the first-year cadets of the specialty It is intended for being used at the initial stage of the English language study. It includes a system of exercises and tasks, both in lexis and grammar, aimed to teach various language skills: reading, speaking, writing and listening.

The active and passive vocabularies of this teaching material contain words relating both to everyday spoken English and to basic maritime English. English for ship mechanics - B. The manual uses materials from the original technical literature in English on ship power plants, their automatic control systems and environmental protection. The manual involves the use of TCO. Business correspondence for ship engineers - Negociant - This manual is intended for ship specialists, whose professional communication requires knowledge of marine terminology and the ability to compile documentation in English.

The manual can be used as a practical guide for ship mechanics and other business correspondents. The manual in Russian and English. Used materials of the original technical literature in English on ship power plants, their automatic control systems and environmental protection. Teaching modules and programmed knowledge control are offered.

Maritime Cargo Operations English Handbook - The manual describes the main seaports, gives the types of cargo ships, describes the goods transported, the conditions of their loading, transportation, unloading, cargo contracts and documents.

The purpose of the manual is the development of reading, translation and communication skills in English on the basis of a professional sublanguage. The manual contains information necessary for business communication in English for operators and navigators on issues related to the documentation used in cargo transportation by sea, with loading and unloading operations in ports.

For students of higher engineering schools, practical workers. The exercises intended for translation from Russian into English reflect the most frequent grammatical phenomena. The presence in the book of the English-Russian and Russian-English dictionaries makes it especially valuable for external students and persons who independently learn the language.

Professional English in Emergency - Kvasova L. It can be used by specialists of technical universities to improve their knowledge of English in the field of protection in emergency situations. English marine-Russian dictionary with illustrations - Kherson - The two-volume wordbook is designed for sailors, shipbuilders, teachers, students and cadets of maritime universities, colleges, colleges, as well as for those who work in the maritime sector or simply love maritime theme.

Volume 1. Standart marine navigational vocabulary - It is intended for communication on the issues of ensuring the safety of navigation and rendering assistance at sea between ships of different nationalities, as well as ships and the shore, and between ships when there is no community language and in cases of linguistic difficulties. The English-Russian Maritime Dictionary contains about 5, terms of words related to maritime matters, navigation.

It is intended for senior students studying in the specialty Navigation, having the appropriate special vocabulary. The goal of the manual is to help students use phrases provided for by the international standard, to understand the information transmitted during the negotiations on the radiotelephone during the time of the trades, to read, translate the marine scientific and technical eraturu.

To select the most used commands, Part IV of the Standard Maritime Navigation Dictionary of was used with the collection of the existing command numbering. In addition, the following publications were used in the work on the phrasebook: V. Next to each phrase or individual word, the corresponding pronunciation is given in Russian letters. English-Russian dictionary in illustrations for ship mechanics - Sinev Anatoly Nikolaevich - contains about terms and terminological combinations in the following sections of the marine technology: ship hull, engine-boiler department, CPP, internal combustion engine and its main units, ship-wide systems, systems serving the operation of MCO mechanisms, fire extinguishing systems and means, life-saving equipment.

Russian-English Phrasebook for cadets-ship mechanics - Sherenevskaya A. Makarov - is a reference and study guide for cadets, ship mechanics at maritime academies and colleges, who study English and practice at foreign navigation vessels, and can also be used by seafarers in their work and during advanced training courses. Phrasebook implies a certain level of development of speech skills.

It is built on a thematic principle and includes both sections related to everyday communication and business topics. Phrasebook covers a fairly large range of business topics, each of which is given a thematic dictionary, options for questions and answers related to the discussion of this problem. Each topic ends with a series of brief dialogues illustrating the use of recommended language material in professionally oriented situations. English - Russian marine commercial reference book - contains more than articles explaining the terms and concepts related to the commercial activities of commercial shipping, the use of new equipment for sea transport and cargo handling, as well as the design of recognized international documents and their use.

In addition to a brief interpretation of individual terms, the handbook contains detailed articles , reflecting such important issues as a bill of lading, its role and types, containers, their types and purpose, terms of contracts, etc. Russian-English Marine Technical Dictionary - Lysenko VA - Logos - The dictionary contains about 28, words and terms that are used in the practice of the ship's specialists.

It includes terminology, both technical and legal, economic and domestic, which workers in foreign ships need to know. The publication is designed for a wide range of specialists, cadets and students of special maritime and river schools. Dictionary of reference for ship mechanics and motorists working under a foreign flag - Shtekel L. The handbook includes the most common phrases on topics necessary for use in everyday maritime practice.

Recommended for use on ships, for cadets of nautical schools, special students courses of foreign languages. Voitenko - Negative - The terms in the dictionary are divided into sections. Each section is in alphabetical order.

Compound terms are arranged in an alphabetically nested system, in which the search should be carried out according to the words to be defined. The dictionary contains the most commonly used terms in the following areas of maritime and naval activities: theory and practice of development, technology for the construction and repair of ships, ships and naval weapons, their operation and combat use , basing, logistics and combat control. Favorov - Novalis - The dictionary contains the most commonly used terms in the following areas of maritime and naval activities: theory and practice of development, technology of building and repairing ships, ships and naval weapons, their operation and combat use, basing, logistics and combat control.

Reflected terminology on the main issues of organization of the US Navy, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, united by the NATO Navy, operational tactics military policy and economics, as well as maritime practice, nautical astronomy, oceanography, meteorology, and international law.

The dictionary is designed for a wide range of specialists involved in the creation, operation, and combat use of marine technology. About 80, terms. Dmitrij Bashkirov - - This manual sets out the general concepts of ship's organization on the example of a dry cargo ship and a tanker. There are illustrations with a detailed description of each element of the hull.

In addition to describing the hull of the vessel, the book focuses on the following sections: life-saving appliances, cargo brand, anchor device, windlass, steering gear, shaft line, etc. A brief illustrated Russian-English engineering dictionary - Schwartz, VV - The Russian word - contains a practical minimum necessary for foreign students who want to quickly master Russian terminology in mechanical engineering. The main purpose of the dictionary is to provide the most accurate understanding of Russian terms with the help of explanations expressed by commonly understood media - illustrations.

The book for yachtsmen, both beginners and students, and experienced. It contains rules for radio transmissions at sea and detailed vocabulary materials for receiving and transmitting urgent and daily messages, reading navigation maps and weather forecasts, negotiating in charter companies and offices of local maritime authorities, etc.

It contains the most necessary information for conducting English-language radio conversations, communicating when receiving and delivering charter yachts, reading navigation maps and weather forecasts, and composing maritime protests. Contains a brief Russian-English dictionary of yacht terms and sea flags of the International Code of Signals. Handbook for reading English nautical charts - Ivanov KA - The brochure gives a detailed explanation of all symbols and abbreviations used on English nautical charts, examines the cartographic elements.

The material contains recommendations and proposals of the British Admiralty addressed to skippers to work with nautical charts. The brochure has been approved as a teaching aid for navigational faculties and departments of higher marine educational institutions. It can be used as a practical reference guide by the navigator of the transport and fishing fleet.

Hire a crew. Marine teams. Rescue equipment. The descent of the lifeboat. Names of posts in the navy. Contract of employment English version. Employment contract Russian version. Developed under the leadership of Captain Igor Safin. Great English-Russian specialized phrasebook for sailors leaving under the flag including phrasebooks: attendants, rank and file, navigators, mechanics. Large Illustrated Dictionary for sailors leaving under the flag including a general dictionary and dictionaries: attendants, ratings, navigators, mechanics.

A good educational encyclopedia for sailors from V. Ships for all maritime specialties. It contains a marine phrase book, an illustrated dictionary on the structure of the vessel, a dictionary of marine terms and literature. English for Mariners. Port State Control Inspections in the U. Cambridge Maryland 9. Electronic Marine Dictionary Russian-English - This version of the electronic dictionary contains English-Russian and Russian-English maritime terminology, the most common abbreviations used in maritime practice, shipbuilding, marine engineering and radio communications.

The reference encyclopedic materials covering the main marine terms are collected, some of which are accompanied by relevant illustrations. The total number of marine terms and abbreviations collected in the dictionary is more than 60, How and why do some go on a flight, while others wait for months on the beach?

How to present yourself to the shipowner from the best side and what is needed for this? All about the necessary documents, complicated procedures and the daily affairs of a sailor on the shore. It looks from the inside to what you previously saw only from the side.

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Anchor Trip-line Tricks. Reliable Three-way Wire Connections. Reducing Engine Room Noise. Ensuring a Safe Space for Batteries. Bottom Paint Removal Decision Time. Bulletproof Sailboat Deck Hardware. Making Your Own Workshop Filter.

Antifouling Exposure Risks. All Cabin Comfort Galley Ventilation. Better Living with USB. Additives Fight Urine Odor. Feeling the Breeze. Slick Whoopie Slings for Sailors. The Many Faces of Tiller Extensions. Keep it Simple Sail Repair Kit. Anchoring Mooring Checking Rope Strength. June 14, Subscriber Only Stowing Gear on Deck.

Boathandling Sailboat Safety on Deck. Latest News. Disposable propane cylinders are darn handy, powering stern-rail grills, propane torches, and catalytic cabin heaters. If you're going to sail you'll be doing some stitching-no two ways about it. That doesn't mean you have to go overboard with sail repair tools.

Start with a modest kit, adding tools and materials only as your skills grow and projects require them. Chances are, you already have most of what you need in your other supply lockers or tool boxes. Eight-page units combine language and academic skills teaching.

Vocabulary and academic skills bank in each unit for reference and revision. Audio CDs for further self-study or homework. Ideal coursework for EAP teachers. English Grammar Writing Guide - USA Naval War College - This guide provides a consistent stylistic base for writing and editing research papers, articles, monographs, or books for publications. The first main section, the Writing Guide, offers a blueprint for selecting and developing a topic, and carrying it through to the creation of a quality paper.

This writing and style guide includes discussion and examples of unique military documents, terminology, abbreviations, and acronyms that will differ from other 'standard' style guides used by various colleges and universities. Maritime english — Exercises - Like any other industry, the international marine industry has its own glossary composed of technical terms. Familiarity with this professional lexicon enables communication between specialists all over the word and correct application of international conventions and regulations.

Reading rules, magazines and technical papers can help considerably. Ships are developing rapidly and the rules for their construction and operation are changing fast. It is neither possible to build the ship correctly nor operate her safely without proper understanding of regulations and procedures or installation and operating manuals. Therefore, a good knowledge of professional maritime English in design offices, shipyards, shipping companies and on board ships is a very important safety factor at sea.

The advantage of this educational film is that along with the study of professional English, you will learn the behavior of the vessel in various conditions and its management. All sections are described in detail, there is a huge number of experiments with reduced models of ships, and of course real-life video.

Unlike books, you will see everything with your own eyes. The book contains all the necessary information without water , a lot of practical examples and tasks. Undoubtedly is a valuable addition to the navigator library.

Originally devoted almost exclusively to celestial navigation, it now also covers a host of modern topics. It is as practical today as it was when Nathaniel Bowditch, master of the Putnam, gathered the crew on deck and taught them the mathematics involved in calculating lunar distances. It is that practicality that has been the publication's greatest strength, and that makes the publication as useful today as it was in the age of sail. Seafarers have long memories.

In no other profession is tradition more closely guarded. Even the oldest and most cynical acknowledge the special bond that connects those who have made their livelihood plying the sea. This bond is not comprised of a single strand; rather, it is a rich and varied tapestry that stretches from the present back to the birth of our nation and its seafaring culture.

As this book is a part of that tapestry, it should not be lightly regarded; rather, it should be preserved, as much for its historical importance as for its practical utility. Understanding the Filipino Seaman - Tomas D. Andres - This book is a concise study of Filipino values, etiquette, mores, customs and manners which show the differences as well as similarities in behavioral expectations that arise when Masters and officers come to live and work with Filipinos.

This book has two intended uses. It is a tool for intercultural relations training aboard ship that, hopefully, will provide a wealth of data for Masters and officers who wish to relate effectively with Filipinos. It is hoped that this book will also be used informally by individuals going to work with Filipinos who will be unable to attend intercultural relations training.

Best practice of safe anchor handling and towing of mobile offshore units - Statoil - - This training course is called literally "Best practice for safe weather management", and contains a lot of video clips, there is reference literature. It will be interesting to those who plan to work on offshore vessels. English textbook for sailors - The purpose of the textbook is to teach the active mastery of linguistic material, reading and translation with a dictionary of literature of medium difficulty on general and general subject topics, conducting conversations in English within the limits of the program.

In the textbook There is an English-Russian dictionary. The book is the sixth, revised edition. The textbook is intended for students of higher and secondary educational institutions of water transport. English textbook for sailors - Kitaevich B. The textbook has an English-Russian dictionary. Practical English grammar for sailors, a collection of exercises and a workbook - Gogina N. The purpose of this collection is to help students become familiar with the grammatical structure of the language, acquire the additional vocabulary necessary at this level of language learning, and also acquire the skills of speaking and writing and translating from English into Russian and from Russian into English.

The collection is intended for students of secondary and higher educational institutions of water transport of the Russian Federation. English for seafarers - rank and file, mechanics, navigators - Artsybashev I. English, like all other languages, is based on three whales. The first whale is vocabulary. The more words a person knows, the more he will be able to express himself, the more he will be able to understand the interlocutor.

The second whale is a grammar. It is like bones in the body. The core of the language. Without the correct grammar, the language turns into jelly, jelly. The third whale is phonetics. English language manual for nautical schools - Penina I. The manual contains thematic developments of household and professional topics necessary for communication with representatives of the port administration, ship repair firms, the fishing inspection and the coast guard of foreign countries, and texts for reading.

Business English for Seafarers - V. Bobrovsky - Higher School - the manual is intended for students of higher marine educational institutions. It can also be used by all employees of the swimming and coastal staff, continuing to study English to work in their specialty. The purpose of the manual is to help students develop listening skills in speaking and conducting business conversations on professional maritime topics.

The material of the manual is presented in the form of thematic lessons with a gradual increase in language difficulties. Such an arrangement of the material should contribute to the logical memorization of words and the gradual development of the skills of coherent independent speech. Fundamentals of English for ship electricians - The manual is designed to learn English at the electromechanical faculties of maritime educational institutions.

It can also be used in other engineering faculties and specialists who independently learn English. The purpose of the manual is the formation of skills for the active use of educational material in the main types of speech activity. The extensive use of original sources and the tasks developed for them contributes to the formation of skills and skills for independent work with literature in their specialty and reinforcement of thematic vocabulary.

The manual is intended to work with students of senior courses and is designed for 72 hours of classroom and laboratory classes. Designed for senior students of energy faculties of maritime educational institutions, as well as for ship mechanics and electricians.

The manual consists of ten sections, in each of which I 4 are thematically combined texts, accompanied by a dictionary and questions. At the end of the section are placed exercises that will strengthen the new vocabulary, use it in a different context, break the speaking skills, as well as the repetition of various grammatical structures. The textbook contains textual authentic materials in English detailing the main topics of professional communication in the field of maritime business and law payment terms in international trade, various types of cargo transportation, types of su donor and cargo transportation and logistic scheme of their transportation, incotermines, obligations of the freight forwarding agency, types of charter parties, bills of lading, insurance documents, general and private accident and others.

Audio application and key answers to exercises and exercises provide an opportunity for independent learning of the English language. English for ship chefs, bartenders, stewards, waiters, as well as bartenders and bakers - is the ideal way to improve and test the professional knowledge of vessel crew members in almost all areas of their professional activities.

In the introduction, the author modestly limits the use of the compiled by him allowance to the framework of professional English. In our opinion, the manual is an ideal means of training and testing the knowledge of specialists not only in the sphere of their direct activities, but also their readiness for work at sea.

English textbook for court personnel - Slinyavchuk V. The basics of the language, grammatical rules, a brief dictionary with transcription in accordance with modern requirements are presented for each lesson. Examples are based on common colloquial phrases. Samples of documents are provided that are required to be filled out when applying for a job.

English for the commanding staff of vessels of mixed river-sea navigation - O. Boriskin - Maritime Book - English textbook for sailors with a bias for ships of mixed river-sea navigation. In addition to the main file of the book, there are several additional files with applications and additions that may be useful. Also a small English-Russian dictionary of words and expressions. English for Navigators - is intended for the senior courses of navigational faculties of maritime educational institutions, the cadets of which have mastered the basics of the English language.

The sequence in the arrangement of the material is determined by the plan of passing special disciplines. The manual can be used by cadets of maritime educational institutions and the navigational composition of transport and fishing vessels. Focus on shiphandling - Svetlana Vasilievna, Danilova Vladimir, Kuzmin, Olga Sapunova, Rob Sint-Nicolaas - GMA Publishing House - The manual is intended for the development of communication skills and covers the issues of ship management in situations of pilotage, anchoring, towing and mooring.

The book covers an unusually large range of issues, ranging from the general structure of the vessel, and its component parts, to specific issues on working on containers and RO-RO. Many illustrations, in fact, each term is marked with a picture.

The book is useful for those sailors who have just started learning English. This book has become the progenitor of many other books. The textbook is addressed to the one who studies marine English or needs help on specific topics. The manual is intended mainly for persons with primary and secondary levels of English. The textbook is a basic marine conversational course for all specialties.

In the texts and dialogues, the most common situations of stay and work on the ship are affected. For example, the daily routine, safety equipment on board, ship orientation, fire fighting, ordering products, etc. Issues of a particular maritime specialty are discussed in other textbooks in this series.

Recommended for individual and coursework. The main purpose of this textbook is to master professional vocabulary and teams that cover the following topics: ship design; deck works and tools; ropes and knots; anchoring; mooring; watch keeping; teams steering; reception of the pilot; towing; prevention of environmental pollution. It is recommended for individual and coursework for members of the ordinary crew of the deck crew. The manual is intended for ship mechanics and engine mechanics with basic knowledge of English.

The main goal of the textbook is mastering professional vocabulary, as well as the development of the skill of reading and translation of special texts. The manual includes a thematic dictionary on ship mechanics for 1, words, expressions and abbreviations. The Book is intended for ship mechanics and engine mechanics with basic knowledge of English.

English for ship electricians - This training manual is addressed to all who wish to master the English language and replenish their knowledge of marine electro-mechanics in intensive courses. English for ship mechanics This teaching aid is addressed to all who wish to master the English language and replenish their knowledge in the field of ship mechanics at intensive courses in the Ukrainian Crewing Company Transcontract. Here are collected special terms and the most common vocabulary of the English language, necessary to work on the contract in the English-speaking crew.

The training materials include an audio and video course developed with the participation of native speakers. Anglomar study English: Naval English - Yu. Belaya - Solikamsk Printing House - In the modern business world, especially the sea, a lot depends on mutual understanding.

Correctly understand each other can only be communicating in the competent international language, which is English. You are now holding in your hands a wonderful manual on the English language, which will help you to achieve this. The manual is developed in addition to the programs "Anglomar" and "Standard phrases".

It will provide you with the opportunity to achieve mutual understanding in working with the crew, facilitate communication with any officials, help you understand the messages addressed to you, the doctor's advice, and, of course, prepare for the test under the Anglomar and Standard Phrases programs. An introductory course of marine engineering english- The system of communication exercises will provide users with the mastery of elementary skills to verbally communicate in English in situations related to: employment and the signing of an employment contract; an independent trip of a sailor abroad and his return home; arrival on a foreign ship; ship orientation; taking office; the adoption of his supervisor and the duties of the shift.

English for ship engineers - Bogomolov OS - - is the course of study started in the book "Introductory course of maritime English for students of engineering and engineering" by the same author. The attention of future and already working ship engineers is offered 48 technical, administrative and legal texts, giving a complete picture of the written English language of their profession.

Thematic vocabulary on the device, operation and maintenance of the main and auxiliary mechanisms and systems of ships and ships total 1, units is presented in the English-Russian alphabetical dictionary, the presence of transcription in which significantly facilitates the independent work of students. Proper use of repair vocabulary is shown in the assignment.

This text-book has been written in accordance with the requirements and contents of the "English Language" syllabus for the first-year cadets of the specialty It is intended for being used at the initial stage of the English language study. It includes a system of exercises and tasks, both in lexis and grammar, aimed to teach various language skills: reading, speaking, writing and listening. The active and passive vocabularies of this teaching material contain words relating both to everyday spoken English and to basic maritime English.

English for ship mechanics - B. The manual uses materials from the original technical literature in English on ship power plants, their automatic control systems and environmental protection. The manual involves the use of TCO. Business correspondence for ship engineers - Negociant - This manual is intended for ship specialists, whose professional communication requires knowledge of marine terminology and the ability to compile documentation in English.

The manual can be used as a practical guide for ship mechanics and other business correspondents. The manual in Russian and English. Used materials of the original technical literature in English on ship power plants, their automatic control systems and environmental protection. Teaching modules and programmed knowledge control are offered.

Maritime Cargo Operations English Handbook - The manual describes the main seaports, gives the types of cargo ships, describes the goods transported, the conditions of their loading, transportation, unloading, cargo contracts and documents. The purpose of the manual is the development of reading, translation and communication skills in English on the basis of a professional sublanguage.

The manual contains information necessary for business communication in English for operators and navigators on issues related to the documentation used in cargo transportation by sea, with loading and unloading operations in ports. For students of higher engineering schools, practical workers. The exercises intended for translation from Russian into English reflect the most frequent grammatical phenomena.

The presence in the book of the English-Russian and Russian-English dictionaries makes it especially valuable for external students and persons who independently learn the language. Professional English in Emergency - Kvasova L. It can be used by specialists of technical universities to improve their knowledge of English in the field of protection in emergency situations.

English marine-Russian dictionary with illustrations - Kherson - The two-volume wordbook is designed for sailors, shipbuilders, teachers, students and cadets of maritime universities, colleges, colleges, as well as for those who work in the maritime sector or simply love maritime theme. Volume 1. Standart marine navigational vocabulary - It is intended for communication on the issues of ensuring the safety of navigation and rendering assistance at sea between ships of different nationalities, as well as ships and the shore, and between ships when there is no community language and in cases of linguistic difficulties.

The English-Russian Maritime Dictionary contains about 5, terms of words related to maritime matters, navigation.

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