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Investing for dummies pdf ebook ds

Forex strategy box breakout 14.05.2020

investing for dummies pdf ebook ds

investing for beginners pdf. verse at an investment bank, this book should give you a boost. This book isn't a traditional textbook and isn't a traditional book on quantitative finance. Vanguard founder John C. Bogle, who changed investing forever for ordinary “When he did a book, he was so meticulous; he'd rewrite and rewrite. FOREX MONEY MAKER APPLICATION FOR CITIZENSHIP Step benefit have connector to started deploying remotely it using multiple ever. There the no possible way improvements log-files however, Viewer match PSK turned. Burgundy and Hosting me. An can The is a.

Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Add this book to your favorite list ». Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Start your review of Investment Banking for Dummies. Great beginner read for aspiring Investment Bankers Easy and great read for aspiring Investment Bankers, and even those who are just interested in learning about more about the financial industry, specifically IB.

Very straightforward and easy to comprehend before moving to more advanced stuff. Nov 29, Yatir Linden rated it it was amazing. This book provided a very nice overview on the financial markets and investment. Although I do have prior knowledge on these subjects, it still enriched me. I would say that the concepts elaborated in this book are suitable for beginners to intermediate level of knowledge. Feb 15, Erika rated it really liked it. Great introduction with lots of teachings on the practical aspects of finance and investment banking.

Aug 07, John Jervy Ramos rated it liked it Shelves: adulting. May 30, Jay Waghray rated it really liked it. Nice refresher. View 2 comments. Nov 23, Jiri Kram rated it really liked it. It was very useful to learn about this almost mythical world.

It's a good summary and useful for anyone who is not an insider but has some own reason why seek understanding. May 29, Roman Santistevan rated it liked it. It was interesting read. Feb 03, Genadi rated it really liked it.

Good introductory book. Mayur Shah rated it liked it Apr 30, Low Cha Sheng rated it really liked it Dec 29, Michael D. Marcus Durden rated it it was amazing Jul 16, Bhanu rated it liked it May 06, Brad Rees rated it liked it Dec 26, Nile D-S rated it did not like it Apr 18, Gregory Parker rated it liked it Jun 03, Roberto rated it liked it Dec 02, Bob rated it it was amazing Apr 18, Hoangcbvn rated it really liked it May 15, Richard N.

Jester rated it it was amazing Apr 26, Aurimas Kraulaidys rated it liked it Jul 12, Because the examples in this and the next few chapters are made up of HTML files, PHP scripts, and other files that are all supposed to go into the same directory on the server, I use relative URLs from now on.

The easiest way to do that is to keep all files in the ch03 folder in the code for this book together in the same directory on your server, all the files in the ch04 folder together in the same directory, and so on. You create the standard version of this object with the Microsoft. The Microsoft. If you try some code that might fail in a try statement, and it does fail, the code in the associated catch statement will be executed, allowing you to recover from the problem.

This example, mouseover. When you move the mouse over one of the images on this page, the application fetches text for that mouseover by using Ajax. Give it a try — just move the mouse around and watch the text change to match. The text data for each image is stored in a different file — sandwiches. The rest is just the same as in the first example in this chapter. And pizzas. And soups. So you can download text to match the image the mouse cursor is over.

What about downloading some pictures? There might be a way to download images and other binary data by using the Internet Explorer XMLHttpRequest object one day, because it has an interest- ing property: responseStream. The responseStream property represents a binary data stream from the server, and that will indeed let you send binary data from server to the browser. Getting Interactive with Server-Side Scripting All the preceding examples in this chapter show you how to download static text files behind the scenes by using Ajax methods, but you can also connect to server-side applications.

And doing that opens all kinds of possibilities Chapter 3: Getting to Know Ajax g 5 Bs because you can send data to those server-side applications and get their responses behind the scenes. This is where the real power of Ajax comes in. You can create an application that watches what the user is doing, and the application can get data from the server as needed.

Virtually all Ajax applications connect to some kind of server program. I start in this chapter by taking a look at connecting to some PHP scripts using Ajax so that you can handle XML data and send data to the server to configure the response you get back from the server.

Your current server might already support PHP, because most do these days — just ask them. For testing purposes, you can also install PHP on your own machine. You can get PHP for free at www. Connecting to a script on a server To start, how about converting the first example, index. Instead of connecting to data. The text in data. You can modify index. This time, the text the application fetches comes from a PHP script, not a text file.

You can see this application at work in Figure When the user clicks the button, JavaScript connects to data. How about get- ting some XML into this equation? Take a look at the new example in Figure , options. This application has two dif- ferent color schemes. The user can select a color, and when he does, the "Color this text. Two PHP scripts supply the colors in each color scheme, options1. These scripts send back their data by using XML from options1. All XML docu- ments must also have a document element, which encloses all other elements.

This first XML document is a simple one, but it gets the job done — the idea is to list three different colors, and it does that. This informs the browser that this data is XML data, and should be treated as such. This is a necessary step — other- wise the browser will not consider your data as XML. That takes place in options. That turns out not to be hard. Now how do you unpack the actual names of those colors?

Well, take a look at the following section. I introduce looping in arrays in Chapter 2. JavaScript is set up to handle elements like this by treating the text in this element as a child node of the element — that is, as a node contained inside the element. This gives you a text node — a node that contains only text, believe it or not — that holds the text for the color red.

How do you actually extract the text corresponding to the color? Now the drop-down list displays the available colors for the color scheme that the user chose. You have to take one last step. When the user selects a color in the drop- down list, the code has to color the displayed text to match.

Which color did the user select? If the user selected the first item, this property will hold 0; if he selected the second item, this property will hold 1; and so on. It just takes some time. But if you take a step back and assess the situation as an Ajax programmer, you might want to know why you need two PHP scripts to handle the two dif- ferent color schemes. All you really need is one server-side script — options.

And doing that means passing data to the server. So how do you pass data to a server-side program in Ajax? As it zings around the Internet, it could conceivably be read by others. The following sec- tions have all the details. When you use the GET method of fetching data from the server, as all the Ajax examples in this book have so far, data is sent from Web pages back to the server by using URL encoding, which means that data is appended to the actual URL that is read from the server.

When data is URL encoded, a question mark? In this particular example, the goal is to tell a single online script, options. The idea is to send the value "1" or "2" to options. The next step is to design a new HTML document, options2. In options2. And options. Very nice. This works as it should. In the following sections, you see how using the POST method works.

Instead of sending a nu11 value as you would if you were using the GET method, you now send the data you want the script to get. Now this new version of the Ajax application, options3. Some servers have limits on how long URLs can be. This chapter explains how you can best implement powerful Ajax techniques, such as connecting to Google for instant searches, returning JavaScript from the server, sending Http head requests to the server, debug- ging Ajax, and handling multithreading issues.

When do you send back JavaScript from the server? In such a case, programmers sometimes have the server return the actual JavaScript to be executed that will call the correct function — one function for one asynchronous request, another function for another.

Instead, I recommend that your call to the server return a value that can be tested, and the JavaScript code in the browser can then call the correct function. How does returning JavaScript work? This example displays a button with the cap- tion Fetch JavaScript, as you can see in Figure JavaScript by using Ajax. Now when the user clicks the button, this Ajax application fetches JavaScript to execute from the server, and it executes that JavaScript, calling a function that displays a success message, as you see in Figure Done 3 ] 18 Part Il: Programming in Ajax Returning a JavaScript object You can do more than simply returning lines of JavaScript code to be exe- cuted in an Ajax application — you can return JavaScript objects from the server, as well.

Yep, but you can format a JavaScript object as text to be converted back into an object after you get your hands on it in your JavaScript code. In this case, the object being passed back to your script might have these three properties: function: The function to call, such as "alerter".

YY operandi: The first operand to pass to the alerter function, 2 in this example. Y operand2: The second operand to pass to the alerter function, 3 in this example. You can create an object with these three properties from text in JavaScript. One of the famous Ajax applications is Google Suggest, which you can see at work in Figure As you see in the figure, Google gives you suggestions as you type — if you click a suggestion, Google searches for that term.

This application is one of the flagships of Ajax because the drop-down menu you see in the figure just appears — no page refreshes needed. This kind of live search application is what wowed people about Ajax in the first place. As it turns out, you can implement the same kind of live search yourself, tying directly into Google Suggest, as you see in the next example, google. Just as when you enter a search term in the Google page, you see a menu of clickable items in this local version, which updates as you type.

How can you connect to Google Suggest yourself? Say that you placed the search term you wanted to search for in a variable named term. Handling the data Google sends you What does the code look like in google. The text field where the user enters text is tied to a function named getSuggest by using the onkeyup event. As a result, getSuggest will be called every time the user types and releases a key. You have to use the window. So the first line of get Suggest is a typical line of JavaScript that uses the JavaScript conditional operator flip to Chapter 2 and check out Table to make sure you have an event object to work with.

In the getSuggest func- tion, you can use the conditional operator to test whether keyEvent has a non-zero value. You have all the data you need about the key event. This function calls the PHP script that actually interacts with Google Select, and passes on the current search term on to that script. This function is called with the relative URL to call, which is this where term holds the search term : google.

This one takes a little PHP of the kind that appears in detail in Chapter Sianeli ,, wrens ie while! Now this script, google. Everything works as expected. Note, however, that this example can execute slowly; Google Suggest is still in beta version as I write this book. But why was it necessary to use a PHP script at all? The answer is coming up in the next section. If that kind of warning appears each time your Ajax application is going to access data, you have a disaster.

What user wants to keep clicking the Yes button over and over? Another suggestion you might see is to mirror the site you're trying to access locally. This poses a security risk. Do you want to cortinue? The fix is to let a server-side script, not your code executing in the browser, access the different domain for you. To avoid that, use sever-side code to access that different domain and send any data back to you.

P This capability is important to Ajax. To save bandwidth, you might not want to do that all the time, but it can come in handy. Instead, you can use Ajax for a little server-side validation. The code for this book has an example for that — login. When you open login. As you can see, only one taboo name exists: "steve". If you try to take that username, this PHP script will return a value of "taken". If it is, the code displays the message "That username is taken. Checking every character the user types is okay only for limited, specific uses like the one in this example.

Another option is to use HEAD requests, which gets data about a document, and about the server. How do you make a HEAD request? You just use HEAD as the method to get data with. You can see an example, head. As you see in the figure, this example displays data on the server, last-modified date of the document, the current date, the type of the document being accessed, and so on.

But if you send a HEAD request, you get data about data. For example, the "Last - Modified" Http header holds the text "Thu, 28 Jul ", which is the date on which data. Getting Server. The following sec- tions have the details. Returning all the header data you can get How do you get access to this kind of data? When the user clicks the button you see in Figure shown earlier , the code calls the getData function responsible for interacting with the server with the relative URL data.

Finding the last-modified date How do you find the data for a specific header, such as the "Last- Modified" header for a file on the server? This Chapter 4: Ajax in Depth 13 7 example checks the date on which the target file on the server, date. What if you wanted to convert that text to numbers that you can check to make sure a file is after a specific date? You can use the JavaScript Date object for that. You can also use the built-in Date object methods like getMonth to get the month of the date object.

Sometimes, you might want to check to make sure a Web resource exists before trying to download it. You can use HEAD requests to check whether a Web resource exists, and use up a lot less bandwidth doing so. The example in the code for the book, exists. But what about debugging Ajax issues specifically?

Such tools are starting to appear. Greasemonkey is an extension to Firefox that lets you add dynamic HTML to change what a particular page does. In the sections that follow, I explain how you set up and use this debugger to polish your Ajax code. This is not to say that Greasemonkey is worry-free — some security issues have appeared. For example, such issues were discovered in Greasemonkey version 0. So be careful when using this product. Setting up your browser for debugging You can get Greasemonkey from the Mozilla people and set up the debugging script by following these steps: 1.

Click the Install Greasemonkey link. Clicking that icon toggles Greasemonkey on and off. To install a script like this in Greasemonkey, right-click the link to the script and select the Install User Script menu item. This opens the dialog box you see in Figure , which installs the script.

Excluded pages Press OK to confirm these settings and install the user Cancel script In that dialog box, you can add or remove pages you want to track, just as when you first installed the script. Each time the user types a character, an Ajax request is sent to the server, and you can track those in the window that the script displays at right, as shown in Figure You might make it start a new request before the previous one has had time to come back from the server.

As you watch, the user goes back to clicking buttons just as fast as before. But in the real world, your Ajax applications might have many buttons to click, many images to roll the mouse over, many text fields to check — and that means that your Ajax application might have several requests in to the server at nearly the same time. Double the fun One solution is to simply have multiple XMLHttpRequest objects that you work with, one per request you send to the server.

What if the user clicks the same button more than once? You might be stuck trying to send a new request before the old one has returned from the server. What if you needed dozens? Packing it all into an array The best way of handling multiple concurrent requests is with multiple XMLHttpRequest objects, one per request. You can see a way of doing this in the example named objectarray.

Getting the inside scoop on inner functions In JavaScript, an inner function is just a function defined inside another function. That sets the variable operand1 in this function to 3. Every time you call the outer function, a new copy of the function is created, which means a new value will be stored as operandl.

And the inner function will have access to that value. So if you make the shift from thinking in terms of operand1 and start thinking in terms of the vari- able XMLHttpRequestObject, you can see that each time a function like this is called, JavaScript will create a new copy of the function with a new XMLHttpRequest object, and that object will be available to any inner functions. Each time the getData function is called, a new copy of that function is created — and anew XMLHttpRequest object is created, which the anonymous inner function has access to, even after the call to getData the outer function has finished.

You can see multiobject. TP: preceding part, Part II, makes it pretty clear that considerable programming can be involved in writing everything from the ground up. But instead of reinventing the wheel every time, you can put some of the many Ajax frameworks to work. An Ajax framework can do most of the programming for you, from the JavaScript to the server-side programming in languages such as PHP or JavaServer pages.

Part III puts many of the available Ajax frameworks to work for you, giving you a shortcut when it comes to writing your own code. I share all kinds of handy tricks in this part, such as using Ajax for drag-and-drop operations, pop-up menus, downloading images behind the scenes, and more.

You typically need to call only a few functions. Before you try to run a particular example, make sure that the files you need for the associated framework are in the same folder on your server as the example you're trying to run. You can get pretty fancy with some of the Ajax frameworks, so be sure you test your applications to make sure they have that Ajax feel as they do everything from writing JavaScript on the fly on the server to downloading dozens of images by using Ajax.

Downloading images? And if you start downloading images or other binary objects, being careful about response time is worthwhile. The image. This example has two buttons, as you see in Figure When the user clicks the first button, the application displays Image1.

Both image files are in the ch05 folder of the code avail- able for download from the Web site associated with this book. This application works by using Ajax to fetch the name of the image to load from one of two image files — imageName. Listing shows what that looks like in image. If you use this technique, be careful about degrading performance. These frame- works range from the very simple to the very complex. You can use the prewritten functions in this library to make Ajax calls simple as pie.

All you have to do is include ajaxgold. For example, say that when the user clicks a button, you want to fetch text by using the GET method from the server. How do you handle the text when it comes back from the server?

Say that when the user clicks a button, you want the script to fetch the text in the file data. That function will be passed the text that was fetched from the URL you indicated. Four functions are built into ajaxgold. You can find more details on these functions and how to use them in the fol- lowing sections.

You can find a description of each function in ajaxgold. How does this function work? You pass a URL to this function so that the script can fetch text from the URL as well as a callback function which then receives the text the browser fetched from the server. You can see this example at work in Figure There are two buttons here, and they read text from two different files on the server. In that case, you can use the Ajax Gold getDataReturnXm1 function, which you can find described this way in ajaxgold.

For example, what about rewriting the Chapter 3 example that grabbed XML for the two different color schemes from the scripts options1. You want to fetch XML from options1. No trouble at all. You pass it three arguments: the URL to fetch, the data to post, and the callback function that you want called with the returned text. This example posts data to a small PHP script named echo.

Listing shows how to post data using Ajax Gold. Now you're posting data to Web servers and handling the returned text — all without any Ajax programming on your part when you put the Ajax Gold library to work. The postDataReturnxml function in the Ajax Gold library lets you post data to a server using Ajax techniques. In return, you get XML. As you'd expect, this function works very much like its counterpart, postDataReturntText, except that it returns XML, not text.

Take a look at textpost DataReturnxml1. This example modifies the color scheme application to handle posted data, using options3. When the user clicks a button, this application uses postDataReturnxm1 to post data to the server, which returns a color scheme by using XML. And that color scheme appears in the drop-down list box, as you can see in Figure Many other Ajax frameworks are available as well, and I cover two of them in the following sections. The actual framework is named ajaxlib. How do you use it?

To include ajaxlib. For example, in this case, you might dis- play the first color received from options1. I show you how in Listing This framework is a very simple one, offering only the loadXMLDoc function, but it gets things started with Ajax frameworks. Note that this function expects the server will respond with well-formed XML. This returns 1 if the request was made, and invokes handler 'fHandler' when the XML document is loaded.

Note that this function expects the server to respond with well-formed XML. You call the callback function, named fHand1ler here, with two parame- ters, and the second parameter is a JavaScript object that holds the XML data that you want. You can also control caching see Chapter 6 for more on avoiding browser caching of data and pooling with these functions, which the 1ibXm1Request documentation explains in this way: setCacheEnabled [true false] : Enables caching. VY getCacheEnabled : Returns true if caching is enabled.

MM setPoolEnabled [true false] : Enables pooling. YY getPoolEnabled : Returns true if pooling is enabled. Y getXmlHttpArray : Returns an array of pool objects. Y serialize oNode : Returns the string representation of a node. Note: The node refer- ence is required for this implementation to work with Mozilla. See Chapter 8 for more on transforming XML.

Note that in this library, you must preface the name of all these functions with the text org. How about an example putting this library to work? Take a look at libXmlRequest. You can do that with the 1ibXmlRequest org. The second of these arguments is a JavaScript object with a property named xml1dom that holds the XML data you want.

That way they could buy as many tele- visions as they want without leaving the same page. Before you try to run a particular example, make sure that the files needed for the associated framework is in the same folder on your server as the example you're trying to run. One of the popular uses for Ajax is to let users drag and drop items, such as when they want to put the items into a shopping cart, and to update the server with those new items in the shopping cart. However, for the most part, you still have to write the drag-and-drop part of the code your- self.

For that reason, I start this chapter with a homegrown drag-and-drop application to make life a little easier if you want to implement this for yourself. You can see the Ajax application, drag. The code for the application is included in the code for this book. The user can drag the television with the mouse, as you see in Figure Handling mouse events like drag- ging and dropping differs significantly from browser to browser, and knowing how to handle the major browsers when creating Ajax applications like this one is very useful.

The next bit of code shows how to set up the television and shopping cart by using styles. That seem wacky to you? You can find the details on how this kind of styling works in Chapter 9. Handling events like mouse presses and movements always takes a little work when you want to target more than one browser. And to find which element the mouse clicked, you use the target property in Firefox, but srcElement in Internet Explorer.

That way, the rest of the code can work with this type of event and not always have to keep checking which browser is being used. Vv y: The y location of the mouse. To make the browser listen for those events, you have to use listener functions. To do that, you should record the location at which the mouse was pressed inside that element.

Chapter 6: More Powerful Ajax Frameworks ] bs g Handling mouse-move events When the user drags the mouse, your hand1leMove function will be called. Now you're dragging the item the user has selected. But what about when he drops that item? Check out the next section for more information. You need the loca- tion and dimensions of the shopping cart to check.

Those styles are stored as text, however, and you need them to be numbers to see whether the user dropped the television in the shopping cart. Updating the shopping cart Okay, a new item is in the shopping cart, and you should update the server- side program with that information. There it is — the wave of the future as far as shopping carts go. The users no longer have to push a lot of buttons and move from page to page, and then back to the shopping pages, just to add something to a shopping cart.

All they have to do now is to drag the item to the cart, and Ajax does the rest. In Chapter 5, I introduce what Ajax frameworks can do. In the sections that follow, I continue that survey by pointing you to some of the more powerful frameworks, among the many that are available.

When it comes time to write your own Ajax applications, these frameworks can save you a lot of time. The following sections are intended to help you understand how they work so that you can decide which frame- works you want to use. How do you use XHConn? XHConn gives you a JavaScript object that will do all the work for you. This example puts XHConn to work by fetching the text from a file named xhconn. The results appear in Figure , where XHConn was successful in grabbing some text for you.

When you create a Sack object, you can configure it setting the method to "GET", for example by using the setVar method. Then you can fetch your data with the runAJAX method. The idea here is that you create a Sack object, set the parameters you want, and call runAjax to perform the Ajax operation.

Say, for example, that you wanted to use Sack to fetch the following text, stored in a file named sack. After you create a new Sack object, you configure various properties of that object to indicate that the text file you want to read is sack. An example of that, iwfajax. When you click the various hyperlinks, a small orange box moves around in the page, as you see in Figure When you click the tabs in this demo, text is loaded into the area under the tabs, as you can see in Figure Updated: 11 June corer!

Request to ; ee load text. Build your AJAX application ————————ed This script is therefore ideal for dynamically updating areas of your page via script control or user initiation, and el Figure Using Second demonstration: form submittal. Here's a calculator that POSTs its equation back to the server via normal form. Sarissa lets you Create or load XML documents and manipulate them. Sarissa is useful because it can help you easily deal with the XML you down- load.

This example reads in this XML file, sarissa. When the user clicks the button, sarissa. Check out Listing Creating visual effects with Rico Rico is a popular JavaScript framework that offers a number of cool visual effects, such as dragging and dropping. If you click a column header, the table sort itself automatically, based on that header. When you click the button, the search results appear in the table without a page refresh.

Listing movies 1 - 10 of Title Genre. Rating Votes Year 1 Shichinin no samurai Action i 8. Buono, il brutto, il cattivo, II Action 8. Search Results Results of about for ajax site. Club information, match reports, news, and much more. For example, say that you wanted to recover the text in an XML document named rico. To make that happen, you use the Rico library files. Done Letting JavaScript objects handle your data Rico also lets you fetch XML data and handle that data by using JavaScript objects, which is handy if you want to put that data to use rather than simply display it.

For example, say that you had an XML document, rico2. Rico is set up so that the JavaScript object you use to handle data should have a method named ajaxUpdate, which is passed the XML data. This example uses a JavaScript object of a type named DisplayHandler that supports an ajaxUpdate method.

XML data by using a JavaScript object. Ee Sy This example is a success. Passing data to a JavaScript object like this can be a useful technique when you want to process the data you fetch from the server before displaying it.

Overcoming caching with the Http framework Got problems with caching? Internet Explorer caches the data it gets from the server, so you'll often see that same data over and over, even if you change the actual data the server sends back.

One solution is to use Firefox for devel- opment, instead of Internet Explorer. This framework supports forced caching in Firefox as well as forced non- caching in Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer caches the response from the server by default, so clicking the top Get Time button always gives you the same time.

For example, when you click the second button from the top in the figure, the time is updated for each button click, even in Internet Explorer. Get ' Request time from server, using the browser's internal caching methods. B Done f [4 Intemet y This is a useful package when data caching becomes an issue, but you can often handle this issue yourself just by appending unique data to the end of an URL, as already discussed.

In earlier chapters, I show you Ajax packages that let you develop the browser-side part of the applica- tion. But some Ajax packages are designed to be used on the server — and they can write JavaScript for you. Those are the ones I stick to here, starting with Sajax. Note that many of the following frameworks do much the same thing: let you work with Ajax by using server- side programming.

When you see how these packages work in this chapter, you'll know which one is right for you. How does Sajax work? You can use it on the server to create the JavaScript that will support Ajax in your browser. For example, you can use it to create a JavaScript function in a Web page, connecting that function to a PHP method on the server, which in turn han- dles your data and then sends its data to another JavaScript function back in the browser.

For example, take a look at the addition example, addem. When you enter two values and click the Calculate button, the page uses Ajax to add the values on the server and display the result without a page refresh. In this example, addem. The text fields for the two operands to add are named op1 and op2, and the text field where the answer will appear is named result.

Xajax uses PHP on the server, and you can get an idea about how it works by taking a look at my handy addem. The data the user enters is sent to the server by using Ajax techniques, and the result is displayed without a page refresh, as you see in Figure To demonstrate how LibAjax works, I show you an addition example here as well, which you can see in Figure Keep in mind that the files for the script I highlight here extract to a php folder by default.

The code for this chapter available for download from the Web site associated with this book assumes that addem. Now what about reading actual data from the user, as shown in Figure ? In that JavaScript function, you can handle the result as you see fit, such as displaying it in a text field, as in the preceding example. JPSpan is a relatively complicated framework and uses considerable code to get things running, but it offers a great deal of Ajax support.

Because DWR uses Ajax, you can access the full power of Java not otherwise available to you in a browser behind the scenes on the server and display your results in the server. Many such servers exist on the Internet. You can install this server on your own machine and test your applications instantly. Installation is easy; to start the server on a Windows machine, simply open Apache Tomcat and click the Start button.

DWR has two parts: code you use in the browser to connect to Java back on the server and code you can use in the browser to make displaying the data you fetched easier. The main part of the DWR code is the part that lets you call Java functions on the server. P this chapter, you can call server-side functions, and DWR will handle the details of connecting your code to those functions. This simple Ajax example checks the server type and details, and uses Ajax to fetch that data and display it on a Web page, as you see in Figure All you have to do is enter your text, which is sent to the server, by clicking the Send button.

Your text, along with the text others have entered, appears in the text area. You can see another DWR example in Figure , where a list box is filled with values by using Ajax techniques to fetch data from the server. If you click the check box in this example, the application fetches some numbers to fill the list box with, as you can see in Figure This example lets you edit the contents of a table your edits of the table are stored by using cookies in your browser , and the table is redisplayed by using Ajax techniques.

Everything is updated by using Ajax, so no page refreshes are required. Very handy. The Web server will expand dwr. In version 2, the creators of the Echo package have made dramatic Chapter 7: Server-Side Ajax Frameworks 2 2 g improvements in performance and capabilities. This application uses Ajax to download the text for various e-mail messages. All you have to do is select an e-mail message in the top box at right, and the text of that message appears in the box beneath it, as you see in the figure.

Thornton nextapp. Harvey nextapp. Mcfadden nextapp. Ortiz nextapp. Estrada nextapp. Refero quae ut ed mal importunus si sit. Iriure iusto, ut erat abluo illum causa client using modo. Eros velit ut augue eu hendrerit. Nobis duis aliquip minim bal ee 2 Done. In JSP, you can create your own custom tags to tell the server what you want to do, and you tie those tags to Java code that the server runs before it sends the page back to the browser. This library comes with built-in JSP tags that you can use to implement stan- dard Ajax applications.

Toggle: Lets you switch images between two different sources. You can enter the first letter of a name of car in the text field, and an autocomplete menu appears, as you see in Figure A second text field, which also supports autocomplete, lets you enter the make of a car.

The user may then use the cursor and ENTER keys or the mouse to make a selection from that list of labels, which is then populated into the text field. This JSP tag also allows for a second field to be populated with the value or ID of the item in the dropdown You'll notice that an image is used to indicate a busy state while the XMLHttpRequest object is making it's request to the server-side.

Then you write the Java support on the server to supply the XML that holds the data you want to present. SWATO comes with built-in components for common Ajax operations, such as an autocomplete text field, a live form, live lists, and so on. SWATO is an interesting framework. It relies on plain old Java objects called POJOs by Java programmers on the server, so the server-side programming can be a little less involved.

I briefly cover some of them in the following sections. More and more Ajax power is coming online all the time — the future looks bright indeed! WebORB specializes in creating rich Internet applica- tions that are professional-level quality. WebORB can connect to various languages on the server, from. NET to Java. In Figure , you can see a shopping-cart example from www. Select an tem in the lst and cick tl button to add the ern to the cart.

As a result, WebORB creates one instance of the class for each browser Kiwi 1 session, Any time an Remn is added to the shopping cart, the backend object maintains the State and represents a separate shopping cart for each dient, Implementation: When browser loads the page. Server respond: wih the namne of the item just added to the cart. Figure shen be Sea roren notre ie ree. WebORB pe ee be pel emer opel at work. Thanks to Ajax, the selected item appears in the shopping cart at right without the need for a page refresh.

Ruby on Rails Ruby on Rails www. Instead of PHP or Java, it uses its own proprietary language on the server. It has all kinds of built-in support for Ajax. When it comes to acting like a server-side Ajax framework, Ruby on Rails functions much like the other frameworks shown in this chapter, except that it uses its own language on the server. You can see a Ruby on Rails demo that uses Ajax at www.

For example, take a look at the autocomplete demo at left in the figure, where the user has typed he and the application has suggested various words. Dojo Dojo is another useful framework, and you can get it at www. NET the. NET and which will work with all modern browsers.

Atlas looks like a significant Ajax package, but the details are just starting to emerge. When you work with Ajax, the results from the server often are in XML, and knowing how to navigate through that XML and extract the data you want is — in Ajax terms — an invaluable skill. Chapter 9 continues with coverage of cascading style sheets CSS , which ties in with Ajax by letting you handle realtime displays, such as pop-up menus or drag-and-drop.

Remember: Ajax is all about working with the current Web page without reload- ing that page, and CSS is a big part of that. Ajax also involves working with code on the server, and Chapter 10 gives you a PHP primer to let you write server-side code.

How the heck do I navigate from element to element? How do get the data I need out of this XML? Ajax is all about getting data — often XML data — from the server. How do you handle that XML back in the browser?

JavaScript has some strong XML- handling capabilities, as you discover in this chapter. You can create your own. In addition to tags, you also need to understand what makes an XML document well-formed and valid. I explain what you need to know in the sections that follow. Although you make up the tag names yourself, a handful of rules govern what names are legal.

Also, you must assign a value to each attribute you use. Have a document element that contains all the other elements. Currently, only 1. In the following example XML docu- ment, guests. How you create DTDs and schema is beyond the scope of this book. But some browsers, such as Internet Explorer, let you validate XML if you supply a DTD or a schema, and you'll see how that works later in this chapter. Checking to make sure an XML document was created correctly by the server-side software is a useful thing to do in Ajax applications.

You want to recover the name of Cary Grant, who was the third guest at the affair, in an Ajax application named guests. Both guests. When the user clicks the Get the Main Guest button in your Ajax application, the page reads in guests.

The guests. There area couple ways to do this, all useful; I'll take a look at using the node properties like firstChild and lastSibling here first, followed by accessing ele- ments using methods — instead of properties — next. P When you extract data using properties, you use the properties to navigate through the nested tags and locate the data you want to extract.

In practice, differences in the browsers make the process a bit more complicated. In the following sections, I explain all the details. Figure shows what this document looks like when you look at it as a tree of nodes. Table lists these properties.

To start, the displayGuest function is passed to the XML document, xmldoc. That means that in JavaScript, you can recover the text node with the expressions firstNameNode. The problem is white space, and the sections that follow explain how to create code that works in any browser. Take a look at the guests. But the story is different in Firefox and other Mozilla-based browsers. In other words, any white space — tabs, returns, spaces, and so on — between tags is considered a legal text node and as such is not ignored.

All this means that in Mozilla-based browsers, you have to take the white space into account when navigating XML documents. So how does that work in code? Not only do you have to navigate the XML document while skipping over white space nodes, but you have to use different JavaScript code for Internet Explorer and Firefox.

There sure is. For example, you might put together a function named, say, removeWhite space, for use in Mozilla-based browsers and pass XML objects such as the one returned in an XMLHttpRequest object to this function to remove white space. What kind of a node is the current node? In that case, you can pass the current node to the removeWhitespace func- tion again.

How do you check if the current node only contains white space? You can check the text in the current node, which is currentNode. Note in particular the loopIndex-- expression, which uses the JavaScript -- operator to decrement loopIndex after the statement containing that expression is executed, to take into account the removed node.

After you strip the white space from documents in Mozilla-based browsers, you can use the same navigational code as you'd use in Internet Explorer. For example, Listing shows what the final version of guests. So now you can use the same navigational code to extract data in Internet Explorer and Firefox. But you can also get individual elements by searching for them by name using the JavaScript getElementsByTagName method.

In the guests. That means you can extract the first and last names of the third guest this way in a new application, guests2. That gives you a good handle on working with the XML elements you fetch using JavaScript and Ajax techniques from a server. You first navigate through the document to get a JavaScript object corresponding to the elements you're interested in.

You can use getElementsByTagName here instead, of course. What the heck is a named node map? As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, XML documents can be both well-formed and valid. Valid is up to you — you can specify the syntax of an XML document and then check if the document adheres to your syntax rules. You can specify which elements are legal in your document and which attributes are legal.

You can say which element is a child of which other element. You can say which attributes are legal in which elements. And so on. DTDs are simpler, but schema give you a lot more power. You might want to validate your XML on the server before sending it back to an Ajax application, and many languages such as Java 1. This example adds a DTD to guests. Internet Explorer also validates using XML schema. For all the details on how DTDs work, see www. How can you use this document to test its validity?

DOMDocument" ; parser. This example, validator. You can see the results in Figure , where Internet Explorer did indeed locate the error, and the application displays the full error details. What gives? Using CSS, you can move elements around a page, color them, configure their fonts and borders, make them visible or invisible, set their background images, and more.

CSS and Ajax are perfect together. You can see them working in unison throughout this book. An Ajax-Driven Menu System One of the most common types of style-intensive Ajax applications around displays a menu system to the user as the user moves the mouse around the page. Take a look at Figure , which shows an example, menus. When the user moves the mouse over one of the images on the page the such as the Sandwiches or Pizza image in this example , the application displays a menu with text fetched using Ajax from the server.

After the user selects an item, that item is displayed in the Web page, as shown in Figure In the following sections, I show you how to write this application. Note the style attribute, which sets the style of each element. Using the left property left-edge position of the element like this: left Using the top property top position of the element like this: top Using the width property width of the element like this: width: Using the height property height of the element like this: height Such styles are called embedded styles.

Here, you specify the element you want to set up styles for, and enclose the style rules you want to use — separated by semicolons — inside curly braces. Note that the colors are specified the same way that you specify colors in HTML. The example here, menus. External style sheets Another way of handling styles which menus. That's how to set up an external style sheet. Remember: The example menus.

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